Table of contents

By clicking below, it will take you to that chapter directly.   Part 2 is a detailed part of the correspondent chapter.

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1 | Preface     –   

2 | Time line

3 | Joko-to(上古刀)

4 |Names of Parts

5 | Heian Period History(平安時代) 794 – 1192

6 |Heian Period Swords

7| Kamakura Period History (1192 – 1334)

8| Overview of the Kamakura Period Swords (1192-1333)

9| Middle Kamakura Period —Yamashiro School(鎌倉中期山城伝

10 | Middle Kamakura Period — Bizen School(鎌倉中期備前伝)

11|Jokyu-no-ran (承久の乱) 1221

12|Ikubi Kissaki (猪首切先)

13|Tanto ( 短刀) Middle Kamakura Period

14|Late Kamakura Period History (鎌倉後期)

15|Late Kamakura Period Sword

16|The Revival of Yamato School (山城伝復活)

17 | Late Kamakura period Tanto ——- Early Soshu Tanto

18|Nanboku(Yoshino) Cho Period History—— North and South Dynasty History(1333-1393)

19|Nanboku-Cho (North and South dynasty) Period Sword

20 | Nanboku-Cho Tanto(南北朝短刀)

21|Muromachi Period History (室町時代)

22|Muromachi Period Sword

23| Sengoku Period History (戦国時代)

24|Sengoku Period Sword(戦国時代)– – – – – – – – –  – – -Mino- Den 

25|Sengoku Period Tanto (戦国時代)

26| Edo Period History (江戸時代)1603 – 1867

27|Over view of Shinto (新刀)– – – – – – – Difference between Ko-To and Shin-To

28| Seven Main Areas of Shin-to Sword (Part A)

29|Seven Main Areas of Sin-To Sword (partB)

30| Bakumatsu Period History (幕末)1781 – 1867

31| Shin Shin-To (Bakumatsu Period Sword 新々刀)1781-1867

32|The Process of Making a Sword

33|References

34| Background

35|Part 2 of —– 1|Preface

36| Part 2 of —– 2|Timeline

37|Part 2 of —– 3|Jyoko-To (上古刀)

38|Part 2 of —– 4|Names of the Parts

39|Part 2 of —– 5|Heian Period History (平安時代) 794-1192

40|Part 2 of —– 6|Heian Period Sword (792-1192)

41|Part 2 of —– 7|Kamakura Period History (1192 – 1333)

42|Part 2 of —– 8|Overview of the Kamakura Period Sword 1192-1333)

43| Part 2 of —– 9| Middle Kamakura Period Yamashiro Den (鎌倉中期山城伝)

44|Part 2 of —– 10|Middle Kamakura Period Bizen-Den (鎌倉中期備前伝)

45|Part 2 of —- 11|Jyokyu-no-Hen and Gotoba Joko 後鳥羽上皇 1221

46|Part 2 of —- 12|Ikubi Kissaki(猪首切先)

47|Part 2 of —–12|Ikubi Kissaki, continued

48|Part 2 of —– 13|Middle Kamakura Period Tanto 鎌倉中期短刀

49| Part 2 of —-14|Late Kamakura Period (鎌倉後期歴史)

50|Part 2 of —– 15|Late Kamakura Period Sword

My Japanese Room

51| Part 2 of —– 16 The Revival of Yamato Den (大和伝復活)

My Yamato Sword (大和所有刀剣)

52|Part 2 of —–17|Late Kamakura Period Tanto (Early Soshu-Den Tanto)

53| Part 2 of —- 18 Nanboku-Cho(南北朝) Period History (1333 – 1393)

54|Masamune Tombstone in Honkakuji Temple (本覚寺)

55|Nanboku-Cho Period Swords (南北朝刀)

56| Nanboku-Cho Tanto (南北朝短刀) 

57|Part 2 of —– 21|Mucond Muromachi Period History (室町時代) 1393-1467  – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – Ashikaga Yoshimitsu and Ashikaga Yoshimasa 

58|Part 2 of —–22| Muromachi Period Sword (室町時代) 1393 —- 1467

59| Part 2 of —– 23|Sengoku Period History (戦国時代) 1467 —1596 – – – – – – – – – – – –      – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Oda Nobunaga, Battle of Okehazam and Honnou-Ji Temple 

60|  Part 2 of —24|Sengoku Period Sword  (1467 – 1596) – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — –  – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – Mino-Den and Bizen-Den

61|Part 2 of — 25|Sengoku Period Tanto (1467 – 1596)  – – – – – – – -Muramasa Tanto

2019 San Francisco Sword show

62| Part 2 of – – – – – 26|Edo Period History (江戸時代】1603 – 1867 – – – – – – – – – – – – –The battle of Sekigahara and the Winter and Summer Siege of Osaka Castle.

63|Part 2 of – – – 27|Overview of Shin-To (新刀 ) – – – – — – – picturesque Hamon

63|Part 2 of – – – 27|Overview of Shin-To (新刀)

This chapter is the detailed chapter of  27|Over view of Shinto (新刀).  Please read chapter 27 before you start reading this chapter.

The difficulty of Shin-To Kantei

During Ko-To time, one could tell the approximate time when the sword was made by the style and the shape.  The condition of the Hamon,  how the Jigane appears indicates the approximate Gokaden (五ヶ伝) of Ko-To time.  But in Shin-To time, that can not be done.  Even though among Shin-To time, there was some difference between early Edo period that is around Keicho (慶長) era, the middle Edo period that is Kanbun (寛文) and the later part Edo period that is Genroku Era (元禄), but that differences are not much.  The same is true with Gokaden (五ヶ伝). In Ko-To time, Bizen sword smiths forged Bizen characteristic, Yamato sword smiths usually shows Yamato-Den characteristic.  But Shin-To time, a swordsmith of one area did the other area’s Den.  From those reasons, it is hard to determine the swordmaker.  For shin-To, we study the characteristics of 7 main locations.  This will follow the next chapter.

Picturesque Hamon

Around the Genroku Era (1688 – 1704), some picturesque Hamon became a trendy style.  Some swordsmiths made picturesque Hamon on wakizashi or short swords and it became very fashionable.  But many foreigners loved those swords and majority of them were exported to outside of Japan around Meiji restoration time (1868).  Very few are left in Japan today.

The swordsmiths those who made picturesque  Hamon 

From Yamashiro area, Iga-no-kami Kinmichi (伊賀守金道) and Omi-no-kami Hisamichi (近江守久道) forged picturesque Hamon.  From Settsu-no-Kuni (摂津) area,  Tanba-no-Kami Yoshimichi  (丹波守吉道),  Yamato-no-Kami Yoshimichi (大和守吉道) did picturesque Hamon.  And many more.  The below are examples.  Fuji is the Mount fuji designKikusui is chrysanthemum in the water.

63 fuji sakura hamon
 

Fuji                                                      Kikusui

 

 

 

62| Part 2 of – – – – – 26|Edo Period History (江戸時代】1603 – 1867

Chapter 62 is a detailed part of chapter 26|Edo Period History.  Please read 26 Edo Period History (1603 – 1867) before you start reading this chapter.

Battle of Sekigahara

The most powerful man during the Sengoku period, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (豊臣秀吉) died in 1598.  At that time, his heir, Hideyori was only 5 years old.  Before Hideyoshi’s death, he set up a council system consisted of top five Daimyos to take care of the job for Hideyori as his regents until his son comes of age.  At the death bed of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, all five Daimyo agreed to be a guardian of Hideyori, but little by little each of them started to oppose each other, especially Ishida Mitsunari (石田三成 ) and Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康).   In 1600, those two big forces broke the battle of Sekigahara.   One side is Ishida Mitsunari that was called the Seigun (the western army) and the other was Ieyasu side that was called Togun ( the eastern army).   All the Daimyos of the rest of the country took their side either Tokugawa side or Ishida Mitsunari’s side.  It is said Ishida Mitsunari side had 100,000 men and Tokugawa side had 70,000 men.  Ieyasu side had less number of soldiers but he won at the end and he became the top among Toyotomi clan that means he was the top person since Hideyori was still a child.   In 1603 Ieyasu became a Shogun.  Now Ieyasu seized control of Japan and Tokugawa Shogunate was established in Edo, and council system was eliminated.  Yet Hideyori is still there with his mother Yodo-Dono ( or Yodo-Gimi).  They lived in Osaka castle which was built by Hideyoshi before he died.  Later, Hideyori and his mother, Yodo-Dono became an awkward situation with Tokugawa Ieyasu.   Yodo-Dono was very proud and a headstrong person with good reasons.   She was a niece of Nobunaga, she was a wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and she was a mother of the head of the Toyotomi clan.  Later her pride gets them into trouble and led to the destruction of the Toyotomi clan.

Winter and Summer siege of Osaka (1614 and 1615)

After the battle of Sekigahara till the siege of Osaka castle, there were 15 years.  During that time little by little a tension started to build up between Tokugawa Shogunate and Toyotomi clan.  Before the battle of Sekigahara, the Toyotomi clan ruled Japan.  After the Sekigahara, Tokugawa started to rule Japan.  Toyotomi clan lost many top advisers and vassals at Sekigahara.  As a result, all the power was centered around Yodo-Dono.  By this time Hideyori grew up to be a fine man but Yodo-Dono overprotected him and she had control over him.  She even did not allow Hideyori to practice Kendo (traditional martial art of swordsmanship) because it is too dangerous.  She insisted to act like Toyotomi is still the top power.  Tokugawa Ieyasu tried to calm the friction by the marriage between his granddaughter (Sen-Hime) and Hideyori.  A few advisors suggested Yodo-Dono yield to Tokugawa but she insisted Tokugawa has to be subordinate to Toyotomi.  A rumor began to spread that Toyotomi side started to hire and gather a large number of Ronin (Samurai without a lord) in Osaka Castle.   Several mediators tried to convince the Toyotomi side but failed.   November 1614, Osaka Winter Seige started.  Osaka (pronounced Oosaka) Castle is very difficult to attack.  It is a fortress itself.  It is said that the Toyotomi side had 100,000 soldiers.   But some of them were mercenaries.  Tokugawa attacked and fired cannon every day, but the Tokugawa side realized that the Osaka Castle is so solid and it is a waste of time.  Eventually, both sides went to a peace negotiation.   Several conditions were agreed on.   One of them was to fill in the outside moat.  But Tokugawa side filled in outside moat and even the inner moat.  That made the Toyotomi side angry and they became suspicious about the agreement.  Another requirement was the disarmament by the Toyotomi clan, yet the Toyotomi side kept soldiers inside their castle.  The last ultimatum from Tokugawa to Toyotomi was either dismiss all the soldiers or Toyotomi to move to the other location.   Yodo-Dono refused both.   After this, Osaka Summer Siege started.  This is 1615.  It is said that Toyotomi had 70,000 men and Tokugawa had 150,000 men.  Both sides had several battles here and there but the battle did not go well for both sides because of the thick fog, delayed arrival of troops, miscommunication, etc.   The last battlefield was Osaka Castle.   Toyotomi side decided to stay inside the castle, but soon a fire started inside and burned the Castle.  Yodo-Dono and Hideyori were hiding inside the storage building, waiting for the answer to the petition for their life to Ieyasu that they hoped their daughter-in-law could achieve.   But It was not accepted and they both died inside the storage place.

Yodo-Dono

The name of the lawful wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi is Nene.  She was a very smart and sensible person but not from high rank.  She was respected by everybody, including Tokugawa Ieyasu.  Even Hideyoshi often asked her opinion on political matters.   Hideyoshi was greatly helped by her to climb up his ranks.

Nene could not bear a child.  As powerful as Toyotomi Hideyoshi, he went around different women everywhere hoping to get his heir, but none of them could have any children with Hideyoshi.  Yodo-Dono was the only person who had Hideyoshi’s child.  Nobody knows exactly who was the real father, but the speculation indicated several people, one is her childhood friend and several others including Ishida Mitsunari. 

 

62 Yodo Gimi

伝 淀殿画像(It is said to be a portrait of Yodo-Dono but no evidence), owned by Nara Museum of Art         Drawn in 17th-century     public Domain:  from Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository.

62 Kodai-in_Nene_cropped
Nene (Kodai-In), Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s lawful wife.  Public domain from Wikimedia, owned by Kodai-Ji

 

References

Kamurai.itspy.com/nobunaga/oosaka.html

www.thoughtco.com/toyoomi-hideyoshi-195660 

senjp.com/sekigahara

 

 

2019 San Francisco Sword show

Here are several pictures of 2019 San Francisco Sword Show that I attended last weekend.  It was a such a pleasure meeting several of you guys.  Mr. Yoshihara brought his grandson to this meeting as debut as a new sword maker. It is nice to see a next generation of sword maker.

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This is the 2019 San Francisco Sword Show
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Mr. Yoshindo Yoshihara (left), Me (middle), Mrs. Kapp (right)
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They also had entertainment, such as singing and dancing.
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Yoshindo and his grand-son (2019 Sword Show is his debut as a sword maker)
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Yoshindo is a very good cook.  He had after party at Kapp’s house.