17 | Late Kamakura period Tanto ——- Early Soshu Tanto

15Timeline

The circle indicate the time we are discussing in this section

17 Soshu Tanto

Sugata (Style 姿)

1. Slightly longer than Takenoko-zori (usually 10 inches long). Hirazukuri shape.  The width became a little wider than middle Kamakura period tanto.   ( Those are all described in 13 Tanto Middle Kamakura period).

2. Chukanzori (back of the sword is straight), Hirazukuri wide Mihaba (width) with the meaty surface, Fukura kareru.

3. Saki-zori (top part bend to back), Hirazukuri Fukura Kareru. (refer 9 Middle Kamakura – Yamashiro school)

17 Three Tanto9 Boshi Fukura

Hi (樋)and engravings(彫刻)————-Often Hi (groove) is on Mune side, sometimes Ken (spear) and Bonji (Sanskrit) are curved inside wide Hi. (Refer 13 Tanto Middle Kamakura period for Hi, refer 9 Middle Kamakura- Yamashiro school).

17 Bonji Suken          17 Gomabashi Hi

Hamon (tempered line 刃文) ————- Hamon is almost same as the Late Kamakura period sword.   (refer 15 Late Kamakura Period (2)  Some Tanto may have wide Hamon and others may have narrow Hamon. Often see the Tanto with the narrow Hamon at the bottom,  wider Homon at the top, widest and most showy around Fukura area.

15 Late Kamakura Soshu Hamon17 Masamune Hamon

Jitetu (the area between Hamon and Shinogi 地鉄) ——-Jitetu is superior.  Lot of Ji-nie (Nia work on Jitetu ) and Yubashiri and Chikei

17 Yubashiri, Chikei

Late Kamakura Period Early Soshu Den (style) Sword Smiths

Soshu den (school) ——————–Yukimitsu (行光), Masamune (正宗), Sadamune (貞宗) Yamashiro Den (school)———————–Rai Kunitsugu (来国次), Rai Kunimitsu (来国光) Yamato Den (shool) —————————————————- -Taema Kuniyuki (当麻国行) Ettchu Province ———————————————————-   Ettsu Norishige (越中則重) Chikuzen province————————————————-    Chikuzen Samoji (筑前左文字)

 

17 Enju Kuniyoshi
Enju Kuniyoshi – was family sword
17 Masamune Tanto
Masamune Tanto- Sano Museum Catalogu

16|The Revival of Yamato School (山城伝復活)

15TimelineThe circle represents the time we are discussing in this section

Yamato province (it is Nara prefecture presently) is the area where sword making started originally.  In early days, they forged swords with their primitive skills.  A large number of swordsmiths lived in this area.  Their style is similar to that of Yamashiro school. At the end of the Kamakura period, Kamakura government started to have financial problems.  Armed monks from Kofuku-Ji temple called Nanto Sohei (Armed monks who lived south side of  Kyoto)* demanded more and more swords to arm themselves.  This demand of the swords revitalized the Yamato School that led to increasing the number of the swordsmith.   As a result, Yamato School became prosperous.

*Nanto Sohei(南都僧兵)———Around the 11th century, Buddhist temples became powerful under the protection of JoKo(former Emperor).  Those temples had a large number of Sohei  (low-level monks who also acted as soldiers) under them.  For the power struggles between the temples, Sohei went to battles fields. Nanto Sohei were monk soldiers of Kofukuji temple.  The aristocrats were afraid of the dignity of God and Buddha, and also did not have enough spirit to suppress them, they had to depend on samurai.  That gave samurai a chance to be a powerful group among the center of the ruling class.

Shape(Sugata姿) —————-1. Graceful Yamashiro style retained. 2. Shinogi is high.  3. Mune is thin.  4. Some group of Yamato school has shallow Sori (curvature).

16 Yamato sword cross section

Hamon (Tempered line)——-Narrow tempered line. Nie base (沸). Chu-suguha-hotsure(frayed medium straight 中直刃ほつれ), Ko-choji-midare (small clove-like pattern and irregular mixture 子丁子乱), Ko-midare ( fine irregular子乱), Ko-gunome-komidare (small  irregular continuous half circle 小五の目小乱). Yamato school forged sword mainly straight grain, therefore, the tempered line often shows double straight line called Nijyu-ha, Hakikake ( Dirt trace left by the broom) and Uchinoke (Crescent-shape line).

16 Hamon Yamato

Boshi (鋩子)———-Inside the Boshi area, straight grain pattern also appears. Yakizume, Kaen(refer 13 Tanto Middle Kamakura period), O-maru, Ko-maru, Nie-kuzure (refer 15 Late Kamakura Period)

13 Hamon and Hi15 O-maru Ko-maru Niekuzure

 

 

Jihada or Jitetsu (the area between shinogi and hamon )——Mostly Masame hada (straight grain pattern 柾目肌). Fine ji-nie, Chikei, and Yubashiri shows.(refer 15 Late Kamakura Period).

16 Masame Hada

Nakago (Hilt)——————Often shows the finishing file design as shown below which is called Higaki yasuri (檜垣)

 

16 Higaki Yasuri

Names of the Yamato School Sword-smiths

Taima(当麻) Group————–Taima Kuniyuki(当麻国行) Taima Tomokiyo(当麻友清) Shikkake (尻懸) Group———————————————–Shikkake Norinaga (尻懸則長) Tegai (手掻) group —————–Tegai Kanenaga (手掻包永) Tegai Kanekiyo(手掻包清) Hoshou (保昌) group——Hosho Sadamune (保昌貞宗)Hosho Sadayoshi ( 保昌貞吉)

16 Shaya Ensou

15|Late Kamakura Period Sword

15TimelineThe circle represents the time we are discussing in this section

Beginning of Soshu style

After the Mongolian invasion, that is the later part of Kamakura period, a new style started to emerge.  Kamakura area became prosperous under the rule of Hojo(北条).  Many swords smiths moved to Kamakura. Fukuoka Ichimonji (福岡一文字)Sukezane, Kunimune group moved from Bizen. Kunituna and his group moved from Yamashiro.  They are the origin of Soshu school (相州).  A star sword smith, Goro-Nyudo-Masamune (五郎入道正宗) appeared during this time.

15 Soshu sword with explanation

Shape (Sugata 姿)——-long Kissaki (O-kissaki 大切先).  Top of Hi ends lower.                 Hamaguri- ha was eliminated (became thinner).  Original length was 3 feet or but mostly shortened later time to 2 feet and 3 or  4 inches.  This is called O-Suriage(大磨上)

15 Kissak shape of 4

15 Hi ends lower

Hamon——————–You see narrow Hamon and wide Hamon.     

Narrow Hamon ——-Suguha (straight) mixed with Ko-choji (small clove) and Ko-gumome (continuous half circle like).  Small Nie base. (First drawing)

Wide Hamon———–Notare (wavy) midare, O-gunome. Nie base.  Ashi-iri (short line goes inwar Inazuma (lightning-  like line), Kinsuji (gold line like)  appears on tempered line.  But Inazuma and Kinsuji requires trained eyes to detect.  It is hard to see for beginners.(Second drawing)

15 Late Kamakura Soshu Hamon

Boshi —————The Hamon from the lower part of the body of the sword continues into Boshi area then turn back a little or Yakizume. You may also see O-maru  (large round), Ko-maru (small round), Kaen (flame like) and Nie-kuzure. Refer Chapter 13 for Yakizume and Kaen.

15 three boshi name

Jihada or Jitetu (between Shinogi and tempered line)—— Strong Ji-nie (地沸), that is a sand-like small dots appears other than the tempered line. Yubashiri (cluster of Ji-nie),  Kinsuji (lined Nie looks like golden line), Inazuma  (lightning like irregular line) and Chikei (similar to Kinsuji appears on Ji-hada).

15 Yubashiri, Chikei, Inazuma

Late Kamakura Period Soshu School Sword Smiths

From Bizen—————— Fukuoka Ichimonji Sukezane, Kunimune moved to Kamakura From Yamashiro —————————     Touroku- Sakon- Kunituna moved to Kamakura

Those above three are the beginning of Kamakura swordsmiths.                 Later,Tosaburo-Yukimitu and his son, famous Goro-Nyudo-Masamune appeared.

Masamune Juttetsu  

Those who made Soshu Style in the other province

From Yamashiro (山城)———–Rai Kunitsugu (来国次), Hasebe Kunishige (長谷部国重)From Ettshu (越中) province ——————-Gou- no-Yoshihiro (郷義弘), Norishige (則重)From Mino (美濃) province ——————————————–Kaneuji (兼氏), Kinjyu (金重)From Chikuzen (筑前) province ————————————————–Samoji (左文字)

15 Masamune (Sano) 15 Masamune hamon (Sano)     Goro-Nyudo-Masamune(正宗)                           Sano Museum Catalogue (佐野美術館図録) Permission granted                                   *Because Masamune lived in Kamakura which is a beach town, he was inspired by ocean wave.  Therefore his Hamon sometimes looks like wave design.

15 Masamune, Yoshioka Ichimonji