Introduction Of The 5 Main Sword School
There are five main sword schools. They are Yamashiro school (山城), Bizen school (備前), Soshu school (相州), Yamato school (大和) and Mino school. During Heian period, Yamashiro school was the main school. There was Ko-Bizen, but their style was a little different than Bizen school we see later. They were somewhat close to Yamashiro school. During Heian period, Yamashiro school was the most active sword school. Swordsmiths lived around Yamashiro area in Kyoto, the capital city. Early Kamakura period, Yamashiro school continued their style similar to the one during the Heian period. Bizen school apperared in middle Kamakura period. Soshu school appeared in late Kamakura period. In Kamakura area. Mino school appeared Muromachi period.
Early Kamakura Period (鎌倉) (1192 – 1218)
We divide Kamakura period into 3 stages. early Kamakura, middle Kamakura, late Kamakura period. Early Kamakura period, sword style is almost same as the one during the Heian period, the previous time. Yamashiro school was the active sword school in an early part of the Kamakura period.
Middle Kamakura Period (1219 – 1277)
In middle Kamakura period, we have three different styles to talk about. Yamashiro school, Bizen school, and Ikubi kissaki style(猪首切先) sword. Ikubi Kissaki is a new style. We say there are no mediocre swords among the Ikubi-Kissaki(猪首切先) swords. As I described in the previous section, Kamakura government(鎌倉幕府) had political and military power, yet the Emperor was still in Kyoto(京都).
Emperor Gotoba raised an army and attacked Kamakura government in order to regain the political power back. This war(1221) is called Jyokyu-no-Ran(承久の乱). The live experience from this war changed the shape of the sword t sturdier looking shape, that is what we call Ikubi-kissaki style.
Late Kamakura Period (after Mongolian Invasion— (1274 and 1281)
In this section, adding to the Yamashiro school and Bizen school, Soshu school started to appear. After Mongolian invasion, that is called Genkou(元寇) in 1274 and 1281, longer Kissaki and longer swords started to appear.