62| Part 2 of – – – – – 26|Edo Period History (江戸時代】1603 – 1867

Chapter 62 is a detailed part of chapter 26|Edo Period History.  Please read 26 Edo Period History (1603 – 1867) before you start reading this chapter.

Battle of Sekigahara

 

The most powerful man during Sengoku period, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (豊臣秀吉) died on 1598.  At that time, his heir, Hideyori was only 5 years old.  Before Hideyoshi’s death, he set up a council system consisted from top five Daimyos to take care of the job for Hideyori as his regents until his son comes of age.   At the death bed of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, all five Daimyo agreed to be a guardian of Hideyori, but little by little each of them started to oppose each other, especially Ishida Mitsunari (石田三成 ) and Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康).   In 1600, those two big forces broke the battle of Sekigahara.   One side is Ishida Mitsunari that was called the Seigun (the western army) and the other was Ieyasu side that was called Togun ( the eastern army).   All the Daimyos of the rest of the country took their side either Tokugawa side or Ishida Mitsunari’s side.  It is said Ishida Mitsunari side had 100,000 men and Tokugawa side had 70,000 men.   Ieyasu side had less number of soldiers but he won at the end and he became the top among Toyotomi clan that means he was the top person since Hideyori was still a child.    In 1603 Ieyasu became a Shogun.  Now Ieyasu seized control of Japan and Tokugawa Shogunate was established in Edo, and council system was eliminated.   Yet Hideyori is still there with his mother Yodo-Gimi ( or Yodo-Dono).  They lived in Osaka castle which was built by Hideyoshi before he died.  Later, Hideyori and his mother, Yodo-Gimi became an awkward situation with Tokugawa Ieyasu.   Yodo-Gimi was a very proud and a head strong person with good reasons.  She was a niece of Nobunaga, she was a wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and she was a mother of the head of the Toyotomi clan.  Later her pride gets them into trouble and led to the destruction of Toyotomi clan.

Winter and Summer siege of Osaka (1614 and 1615)

After the battle of Sekigahara till the siege of Osaka castle, there were 15 years.  During that time little by little a tension started to build up between Tokugawa Shogunate and Toyotomi clan.  Before the battle of Sekigahara,  Toyotomi clan ruled Japan.  After Sekigahara, Tokugawa started to rule Japan.  Toyotomi clan lost many top advisers and vassals at Sekigahara.  As a result, all the power was centered around to Yodo-Gimi .  By this time Hideyori grew up to be a fine man but Yodo-Gimi over protected him and she had a control over him.  She even did not allow Hideyori to practice Kendo (traditional martial art of swordmanship) because it is too dangerous.  She insisted to act like Toyotomi is still the top power.  Tokugawa Ieyasu tried to calm the friction by the marriage between his grand daughter (Sen-Hime) and Hideyori.   A few advisors suggested Yodo-Gimi to yield to Tokugawa but she insisted Tokugawa has to be subordinate to Toyotomi.   A rumor began to spread that Toyotomi  side started to hire and gather a large number of Ronin (Samurai without a lord) in Osaka Castle.  Several mediaters tried convince Toyotomi side but failed. November1614, Oosaka Winter Seige started.  Oosaka Castle is a very difficult to attack.  It is a fortress itself.  It is said that Toyotomi side had 100,000 soldiers.  But some of them were mercenaries.  Tokugawa attacked and fired cannon everyday, but Tokugawa side realized that the Oosaka Castle is so solid and it is a waste of time.  Eventually both sides went to a peace negotiation.  Several conditions were agreed on.  One of them was to fill in the out side moat.  But Tokugawa side filled in out side moat and  even the inner moat.  That made Toyotomi side angree and they became suspicious about the agreement.  Another requirement was the disarmament by the Toyotomi clan, yet Toyotomi side kept soldiers inside their castle.  The las ultimatum from Tokugawa to Toyotomi was either dismiss all the soldiers or Toyotomi  to move to the other location.  Yodo-Gimi refused both.  After this, Oosaka Summer Seige started .  This is 1615.  It is said that Toyotomi had 70,000 men and Tokugawa had 150,000 men.  Both sides had several battles here and there but the battle did not go well for both sides because of the thick fog, delayed arrival of troops, miscommunication, etc.   The last battle field was Oosaka  Castle. Toyotomi side decided to stay inside the castle, but soon a fire started inside and burned the Castle.  Yodo-Dono and Hideyosi were hiding inside the storage building, waiting for the answer to the petition for their life to Ieyasu that they hoped their gaughter-in-law could achieve.  But It was not accepted and they both died inside the storage place.

Yodo-Gimi

The name of lawful wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi is Nene.  She was a very smart and a sensible person but not high born.  She was respected by everybody, including Tokugawa Ieyasu.  Even Hideyoshi often asked her opinion on political matters.  Hideyoshi was greatly helped by her to climb up his ranks.  Nene could not bear a child.  As powerful as Toyotomi Hideyoshi, he went around different women everywhere hoping to get his heir, but none of them could have any child with Hideyoshji.  Yodo-Gimi was the only person who had Hideyoshi’s child.  Nobody knows exactly who was the real father, but the speculation indicated several person, one of them is Ishida Mitsunari. 

 

62 Yodo Gimi

伝 淀殿画像(It is said to be a portrait of Yodo-Dono but no evidence), owned by Nara Museum of Art         Drawn in 17th-century     public Domain:  from Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository.

62 Kodai-in_Nene_cropped
Nene (Kodai-In), Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s lawful wife.  Public domain from Wikimedia, owned by Kodai-Ji

 

References

Kamurai.itspy.com/nobunaga/oosaka.html

www.thoughtco.com/toyoomi-hideyoshi-195660 

senjp.com/sekigahara

 

 

60| Second Part of —24|Sengoku Period Sword

This chapter is a detailed part of Chapter 24.  Please read Chapter 24|Sengoku Period Sword(戦国時代) before start reading this chapter.

During the Sengoku Period, MinoDen group and Bizen Osafune group was the main sword makers.  Because of almost 100 years of the Warring States period, all the Daimyo needed a large number of swords.  If a supplier is closer, that is even better.  Mino area could be reached from many Sengoku Daimyo conveniently because of its location.  Mino swords smiths existed since the Heian period and the Kamakura period.  Mino became the busiest sword making area around the Muromachi and the Sengoku period.   Shizu group and Tegai group from Yamato area, and many swordsmiths from Yamashiro (Kyoto) moved to Mino area.  Mino-Den, Shizu Kaneuji (志津兼氏) from the Kamakura period is one of the Masamune Juttetsu (正宗十哲)*.  Their swords are very practical swords for the Warring Stated period.

60-mino-map.jpg

*Masamune Juttetsu (正宗十哲) —–strictly meaning, top 10  Masamune students but often it means top swordsmiths.

Three examples of Sengoku Period sword

Every sword is different.  Even the sword made by the same swordsmith is different.  Please refer to the basic common characteristic of the sword made during the Sengoku period, 24 Sengoku Period Sword.

 

60-sukesada-photo-e1563148031935.jpg 60 Sukesada illustration

Bizen Osafune Yosozaemon Sukesada (備前国住長船与三左衛門尉祐定) from Sano Museum Catalog

Common Sengoku Period characteristic that shows on the sword above.

Hamon is Kani-no-Tsume (crab claw shape).  This type of hamon never appeared Heian, Kamakura, Nanbokucho period.  This type of Hamon is a deciding point of the Sengoku time.  Marudome-Hi (round end groove) often appear on Bizen Den sword of Sengoku period.  Wide tempered area.  Midare-komi Boshi, with turn back deep and stop sharp.  Hamon is Nioi base.  Bizen does Nioi mostly with some exception.

60 Kanesada photo  60 kanesada illustration

Izuminokami Fujiwara Kanesada (和泉守藤原兼定) from Sano Museum Catalog

Common Sengoku Period characteristic that shows on the sword above

The last letter of Kanji of this swordsmith is not ”定”, instead “宀” and “之”.  But my computer does not have one.  To distinguish from the other Kanesada (兼定), we call “宀 “ and “之 “, Nosada (のさだ) Izuminokami Fujiwara Kanesada is the top sword smith of Mino-Den at this time.  The shape of the sword is the typical Sengoku sword.  Shallow curvature, Chu-gissaki (medium Kissaki), pointed gunome Hamon.  The width of the Hamon is wide and narrow.  Often, Nosada and other Mino-Den have woodgrain on Ji-Hada with Masame mixed.  Nioi base with coarse Nie mixed.

 

60 Norimitsu photo  60-norimitsu-illustraton.jpg

Bizen Osafune NorimitsTu (備前長船法光)   from Sano Museum Catalog

The common Sengoku period characteristic that shows on the sword above

Shallow curvature.  This style of sword including the shallow curvature  (the degree in which the sword turns), the width of the blade and the sturdy look is very typical of Sengoku period.  Marudome-Hi.  Pointed Hamon called Togari-Ba ( 尖り刃).  Nioi base mixed with Nie.  Slight Masame and wood grain on Ji-Hada.

57|Part 2 of —– 21|Muromachi Period History (室町時代) 1393-1467


This is the continued chapter of 21 Muromachi Periods History Please read chapter 21 before this chapter one more time.

57 Muromachi time line      The circle indicate the time we are discussing in this chapter

Until the Muromachi (室町) Period, the way to divide the political history and sword history is the same.  Please look at the above timeline.  The middle line is for sword history and the bottom line is for political history.   The style of the sword has a distinct difference between Nanboku-Cho period (南北朝時代 ), Muromachi period, and the Sengoku period (戦国時代).  Therefore, it has to be divided into three separate periods for sword study.   But school history textbook shows that Muromachi Period is from 1333 (Fall of Kamakura Bakufu ) until 1573 when Oda Nobunaga(織田信長) removed Shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki (足利義昭) from Kyoto (the fall of Muromachi Bakufu).   The school history textbooks describe that the Nanboku-Cho period and the Sengoku period is a part of the Muromachi period.  For the purpose of sword study, we need to divide into three periods, Nanboku-Cho period, Muromachi period, and Sengoku period.

Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (足利義満)

The best time for the Muromachi period was when Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (足利義満, Grandson of Ashikaga Takauji) was in power.  Ashikaga Yoshimitsu moved the Bakufu to the place called Muromachi (室町), therefore Muromachi period.  By Shogun Yoshimitsu’s time, the majority of the South Dynasty Samurai went under the North dynasty.  The South Dynasty side accepted Shogun Yoshimitsu’s offer to end to oppose to the North Dynasty that completed the power of Muromachi Bakufu of the Ashikaga family.  Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu created a huge amount of profit from trade with China (Ming).  One of a famous beautiful temple in Kyoto, Golden Pavillion (Kinkakuji-temple 金閣寺) was built by Shogun Yoshimitsu*.  It is said that he created the Golden Pavillion to display his power and wealth.  The beautiful culture around this time was called Kitayama Bunka (Kitayama culture 北山文化).

*Golden Pavillion (Kinkaku-Ji 金閣寺)  —— Correct name is Rokuonji –Temple (鹿苑寺 ).  This is a Zen temple of Rinzaishu Sokoku-Ji group (臨済宗相国寺派 ).  The Kinkakuji-temple is one part of the Rokuonji-Temple.  Kinkakuji-temple is a Buddhist hall containing relics of Buddha.  This place was once owned by Saionji Kintsune (西園寺公経 ) in Kamakura period.  Shogun Yoshimitsu acquired it in 1397, and he rebuilt it as his own villa.  It is also functioned as an official guesthouse.  Kinkakuji-temple represents the height of the glory of Kitayama Bunka (Kitayama culture)After Shogun Yoshimitsu’s death, his villa was converted to a temple, called Rokuon-Ji temple.  In 1994, it was registered as a World Cultural Heritage Site.

57 Kinkakuji trip 2019

The photo was taken in May 2019, a family trip to Kyoto

Ashikaga Yoshimasa (足利義政 )

After Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (足利義満 ) died (49 years old), the Muromachi Bakufu became financially weaker that made the military power weaker.  As a result,  Daimyo (feudal lord) became powerful.  A few generations after Shogun Yoshimitsu, Ashikaga Yohimasa became a Shogun (8th Ashikaga Shogun).  His wife is the famous Hino Tomiko (refer 21|Muromachi Period History (室町時代.  It is said that Shogun Yoshimasa was not interested in his job as a Shogun, but he was a great culture person who influenced the base of today’s Japanese art, such as Japanese garden, Shoin Zukuri (書院造り)*, Tea ceremony, Flower Arrangement, Painting, and other art forms.  His cultural attribute is called Higashiyama Bunka (Higashiyama culture (東山文化).   As it is described in Chapter, 21|Muromachi Period History (室町時代, Shogun Yoshimasa did not have a child, his brother Yoshimi (義視) was supposed to be a next Shogun.  But his wife, Hino Tomiko gave birth to a son, Yoshihisa (義尚 ).  Hino Tomiko asked Yamana Sozen (powerful family 山名宗全 ) to back up her son, and brother Yoshimi joined with Hosokawa Katsumoto (powerful family 細川勝元).   The problem was Shogun Yoshimasa was paying attention too much to all his cultural hobbies, did not pay attention to the problem he created by not being clear who should be the next Shogun.  He did not yield Shogunate to either one.  He kept enjoying his cultural hobby.   In 1467, on top of the successor problem, because of the other conflict of interest of other powerful Daimyo, “Onin-no-Run (応仁の乱 ) started.  All the Daimyo sided either Hosokawa group or Yamana group.   Eventually, the war spread to the rest of Japan and last over 10 years.  Finally at 1477, after both Hosokawa Katsumono and Yamana Sozen died, Shogun Yoshimasa decided to transfer Shogunate to his son Yoshihisa.  This war caused Kyoto to be devastated and weakened the power of Ashikaga Bakufu.  While all this is happening, people were suffering from the war, Yoshimasa still spent money to build Ginnkakuji Temple (silver Pavillion, 銀閣寺 ).  He died without seeing the completion of Ginkakuji temple.  Onin-no-Run will lead to the next Sengoku-Jidai (100-year warring States period).

*Shoin Zukuri (書院造り )———- Traditional Japanese residential architecture style.  That is with Tatami mat, an alcove on a wall and Shoji sliding screen.  Below picture.

Below Shoin Zukuri style Japanese room

57 Shoin zukuri

Public Domain   GFDL,cc-by-sa-2.5,2.0,1.0 file: Takagike CC BY-SA 3.0view terms      File: Takagike Kashihara JPN 001.jpg

 

27|Over view of Shinto (新刀)

27 Shinto time line                                    The circle indicates the subject discussed here

The previous chapter 26 stated that the Edo period is from 1603 to 1868.  This is according to political history.  Also, when you look at the diagram above, the Azuchi Momoyama period overlaps into the Edo Period.  Some people think the Azuchi Momoyama period is from 1575 to 1600.   Around this time, the division of the period has several opinions as regards to political history.   For sword history, it is more clear cut.  Sword made from around 1596 (Keicho Era, 慶長) to 1781 (Tennmei Era, 天明) is called Shinto.  The sword made after that until the Meiji period is called Shin-Shinto. 

After Toyotomi Hideyoshi almost united the country, people could enjoy a peaceful society.  This peaceful time changed the geographic distribution where swords smiths lived.  There are three major areas where sword forging took place.  Those are Kyoto, Osaka, and Edo area.  Then the rest of the swordsmiths were gathered around each big Daimyo‘s (大名 feudal lord ) territory near their castles.

KyotoUmetada Myoju (梅忠明寿) group thrived.  Followed by people like, Horikawa Kunihiro (堀川国広 ), Kunimichi (国路 ), Kunisada (国貞), and Kunisuke (国助).

Osaka— Osaka became a commercial city and became the center of commerce.  They made swords and distributed them to the local area.  Swordsmiths in Osaka were like Tsuda Sukehiro ( 津田助広 ), Inoue Shinkai ( 井上真改 ).

Edo—-Many swords smiths gathered to Edo (Tokyo now, 東京) where the Shogun Tokugawa Iyeyasu livedThe well-known swords smiths in Edo at this time:  Nagasone Kotetsu (長曽祢虎徹), Yasutsugu (康継), Noda Hannkei (野田繁慶).

By the time the grandson of Tokugawa Iyeyasu, that is Tokugawa Iyemitsu, became Shogun (around Kanei era, 寛永1624 – 1643), swords smiths spread to the other provinces.  In each big Daimyo territory, swordsmiths had their shop near the castle, and they fulfilled the demand by the daimyo nearby and his followers.  By the Genroku (元禄, 1695) era, swords making technic declined and people demanded picturesque designs of Hamon, like Kikusui (菊水, flower design) and Fujimi (富士見, Mount Fuji).

63 fuji sakura hamon
Fujimi                                   Kikusui

Difference between Koto  and Shinto 

The next part describes the difference between Ko-to and Shin-to.   But keep in mind, there are always exceptions to this rule.

1.  The length of the Shinto Katana is usually about 2 feet and 3 inches ± a little.   Wakizashi is 1 foot and 6 inches ± a little.   Shallow curvature.  Wide width.  Thick body.   Gyo-no-Mune.  Chu-Gissaki with a slightly stretched look.13 Mune drawing

2.  Koto sword feels light.  Shinto feels heavy.

3.  For Shinto, Bo-hi ends around the Yokote line. The Bottom of Hi ends round above Machi.

27. Hisaki & marudome

4. In general, for Shinto, carvings are less common. Yet some swordsmith is famous for its carving.  The design is fine and in detail.  Umetada Myoju (埋忠明寿) is famous for its carvings.

5.  For Shinto, if it is mainly made with Nie, it is coarse Nie

6.  Around the Machi area (the bottom part of the illustration below), Hamon starts out with the straight tempered line, then Midare or different types of Hamon,                      finish with Suguha (straight Hamon) around Boshi (the top part of the illustration below). In general, this type of Hamon is done, but there is always an exception.  27 Keshou Yasuri & suguha

7.  For Shinto, the same kind of iron was used all over in Japan.  Very hard, dark color, and glossy.

8.  The Nakago has a properly balanced shape.  The bottom of Nakago narrows down gradually.  The type of Yasurime (file mark) is Kesho-Yasuri.  Engraved inscriptions show name, location, and province, with the year of an imperial era.

27 Keshou Yasuri & suguha

23| Sengoku Period History (戦国時代)

 

23 Sengoku period Time Line red

The circle indicate the time we are discussing in this section

 

Please look at the two red circles on the timeline above.  According to the political history, Sengoku period (戦国時代) is a part of the Muromachi (室町) period, that is on the third line.   But under the sword history, we separate the Muromachi period and the Sengoku period (Warring States period), that is on the second line.  On the sword history, we divide the time this way because in those two periods, the sword style changed and the environment of sword making also changed.

After Onin-no-Ran (応仁の乱) had started (discussed in 21|Muromachi Period), the beautiful capital city, Kyoto (京都 ) was in a devastating condition.  Shogun’s (将軍) power only reached to the very limited small area.  The rest of the country was divided into 30 or so small independent regions.  The head of those independent regions was called a Shugo Daimyo (守護大名).  They are government officials, originally appointed and sent by the central government.  Also, powerful local samurais became a head of the independent regions.  Each of those regions fought against each other to take over each other’s land.  During the Sengoku period, vassals killed his superiors and stole his domain, farmers revolted against their lords.  This is called “Gekoku-jo (lower class samurai overthrow the superior)”. This is the time of the Warring States period called the Sengoku period.  The head of the region was called Sengoku Daimyo (戦国大名: warlord).  The Sengoku period lasts about 100 years.  Little by little, after long hard battles, more powerful regions defeated less powerful regions and gained more territory.  30 individual regions became 20 then 10 and so on.  Eventually, a few powerful big Sengoku Daimyo (warlord) were left.  Each of those heads of the larger regions tried to fight his way up to Kyoto to unite the country.  The first person who almost succeeded was Oda Nobunaga (織田信長).  But he was killed by his own vassal, Akechi Mitsuhide (明智光秀), and Akechi was killed by his colleague, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (豊臣秀吉)

After Toyotomi Hideyoshi defeated Akechi Mitsuhide and a few more major warlords, Toyotomi Hideyoshi almost completed uniting Japan.  But one more person was left.  That is Tokugawa Iyeyasu (徳川家康).  Now, two big powerful clans were left, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu.  Both knew that their opponents are smart and able daimyo, any wrong move on your part would be a fatal mistake.  So, they decided to keep the co-existed condition amicably on the surface for a while.  Though Toyotomi Hideyoshi tried Tokugawa Ieyasu to be his vassal, Tokugawa Ieyasu somehow maneuvered well to avoid that.  In the mind of Tokugawa Iyeyasu, since he was younger than Toyotomi Hideyoshi, he knew that he could just wait until Hideyoshi‘s natural death.  And that happened eventually. After Hideyoshi’s death, Tokugawa Ieyasu fought with the vassals who used to be under Hideyoshi and won at the Battle of the Sekigahara (関ヶ原) in 1600.  Then 1615 Tokugawa won against Hideyoshi’s son, Hideyori’s army.  After this, the Toyotomi clan ended completely, then the Edo (江戸) period started.  Edo period is called the Edo period because Tokugawa Ieyasu lived in Edo, which is Tokyo (東京) now.

*The Sengoku period is often depicted on TV programs and movies.  People who lived through the Sengoku period had a very hard time but it is the most interesting time for TV shows and movies.  Stories of Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu are the most favorite stories in Japan.  Especially the success story of Toyotomi Hideyoshi is one of the most popular ones.  His background was a poor farmer who became the top ruler of Japan, this is one fascinating success story.

23 Toyotomi_hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi by Mitsunobu Kanou, owned by Kodaiji-Temple  from Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository