Chapter 36 is a continued and detailed part of chapter 2.  Please read chapter 2 before this section.  Refer 2 | Joko-to (上古刀)

timeline Yamato
                                     The red circle indicates the time we discuss this section.

Kofun (古墳) culture appeared around 4 to 6 century.  Kofun is a huge burial place for the powerful ruler at the time.  They are often called Zenpo-Koen-Fun (前方後円墳) that is, the front is square and the back is round shape.  If you look at it from the sky, it shapes like a keyhole.  The largest one is the Ninntoku Tenno Ryo (仁徳天皇陵) in Osaka, the tomb for Emperor Nintoku.  The length is 480M X 305M.  The height is 35M.  Inside the Kofun, we found swords, armors, bronze mirrors, jewelry, iron, metal tools.  Sometimes, iron itself.  The iron was only for the ruling class since it was considered very precious item then.  Outskirts of the Kofun, a large number of Haniwa*¹ were placed.  It is said they are for the retaining wall purpose or a dividing line for the sacred area.  Originally they were just a simple tube shape, eventually, it became very elaborate figurines.  Smiling people, smiling soldier, a dog with a bell around its neck, a female with hat, farmers, houses, monkey, ships, birds, etc.  Some of them are made very elaborately and very cute.  By looking at them, you realize people in those days wore elaborate clothes.  Haniwa is very popular among children in Japan.  We have a children’s TV program “Haniwa-kun”, Haniwa is the main character of the TV program.  Haniwa suggests to us what was their lifelike.  Their facial expression is all happy and smiling.   According to the old Japanese history book Nihon Shoki (日本書紀), it said Haniwa is the replacement of martyrdom, but it is not proved.

From another huge Kofun in Osaka, Ogonzuka Kofun (黄金塚古墳), we found a sword. Refer 2 | Joko-to (上古刀).  The writing below is from my old college days note.  The hilt of the sword was made in Japan and the blade was made in China.  This sword has a round hilt and on this hilt, it shows some character.  It said “中平 {?}年”.  The third letter is not readable.  But we know 中平 is from 184 to 189 AD, and “年” indicates the year, therefore it was made between 184 to 189.  And this sword came out from the 4th Century tomb.    The professor explained to us how to determine when a particular bronze mirror was made by reading the half disappearing character on the back of it.  Also, he explained to us that a large number of nested Doutaku*²  was excavated from one particular place, fit inside one another.  Doutaku is a musical instrument for a ritual.  Therefore scholars think people then were being attacked by their enemy, so they hid Doutaku in a hurry and escaped.

In many countries, excavation is time-consuming tedious work and often it takes a long time to find anything.  But in Japan, it is not as hard as other countries.   We often find things.  It may not be what you are looking for, but we excavate items quite often.


Sitting Shrine Maiden,  Owned by National Museum.    This photo is public domain            腰かける巫女(群馬県大泉町古海出土)国立博物館蔵

                        *2滋賀県野洲市小篠原字大岩山出土_突線紐5式銅鐸Doutaku   Excavated from Shiga Prefecture   Displayed at Tokyo National Museum The public domain photo 滋賀県野洲市小篠原字大岩屋出土突線紐5式銅鐸  東京国立博物館展示

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