34| Part 2 — 1 Timeline

Chapter 34 is a continued part of Chapter 1 Time line.   Please read Chapter 1 before reading this section.

36 Gendai-To timeline

                                The above red circle indicates the time we discuss here

Chapter 1 Timeline” explained that Gendai-to (現代刀) is the swords made between the Meiji Restoration (明治維新1868) and now.  It has been about 150 years since the Meiji Restoration.  Even though all swords made after the Meiji Restoration are categorized into one Gendai-to group, there are quite a few differences in quality and kinds.  The very different one is Gun-to (軍刀).  Those are military swords that were forged to use in World War I and World War II.  Some of them have a saber-like handle. With some exceptions, those were made not using the traditional sword making method of heat and fold technique.  Among the Gendai-to, Gun-to is usually considered much less value.   The Gun-to sword made around during World War II is called Showa-to.  It often has a brown leather scabbard.  Gun-to is not a part of the study of the Japanese sword.

*Refer to” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunt%C5%8D”  for Japanese military sword.

                                Gun-to    From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository

At the time of the Meiji Restoration (明治維新), swords called Meiji-ishin-to (明治維新刀) or Kin’no-to (勤王刀) were made.  These swords were owned by famous historical figures like Saigo Takamori (西郷隆盛), and Sakamoto Ryoma (坂本龍馬).  They are important historical figures who pushed the Meiji Restoration forward.  These swords are long and some of them are almost 3 feet long and have no curvature.

Today, many famous swordsmiths are forging wonderful swords. Some are recognized as Living National Treasure.  Gendai-to is the sword made after the Meiji Restoration till now, but please keep in mind that there is a wide range of differences in quality, variety, and purposes among them.

36img077

                       Sword forged by a Living National Treasure, Mr. Miyairi Shohei (宮入昭平)                         Once my family property

 

30| Shin-Shin-To 1781-1867 (Bakumatsu Period Sword 新々刀)

0-timeline - size 24 BakumatsuThe red circle indicates the time we discuss in this section

The later part of the Edo period is called Bakumatsu.  See the circled area of the timeline above.  Swords made during this time are called Shin Shin-to.   They are also called Fukko-to (復古刀: revived sword).  Fukko-to copied the shape, Hamon, Boshi, and other features of the Ko-to and Shin-to swords.  The characteristics of Shin Shin-to (新々刀) and well-known swordsmiths are those below.

The Characteristics of Shin Shin-to

  • Katana, Wakizashi, and Tanto all tend to be similar to or copy of the Ko-to and Shin-to in shape.
  • Many swords often have Hi or detailed engravings.
  • One swordsmith would make more than one style swords like Soshu Den, Bizen Den, and Shin-to style together.
  • Often shows Katai-ha.

30 katai-ha

                                                                  Katai-ha

  • Weak (not tight)
  • Yakidashi (2 to 3 inches above Machi) is often Suguha(straight line Hamon), even though the rest is irregular    Boshi is often irregular Midare.
  • Detailed engravings, but more realistic than the previous times.

Well known swordsmiths of Shin Shin-to

  • Settsu (Osaka area) ————Gassan Sadayoshi (月山貞吉) Gassan Sadakazu (月山貞一) Gassan family is famous for detailed carvings.
  • Musashi no Kuni (Tokyo area) ——Suishinshi Masahide (水心子正秀)  Minamoto Kiyomaro (源 清麿)  Taikei Naotane (大慶直胤)  Taikei Yoshitane (大慶義胤) is famous for his carvings.

30 Kiyomaro entire

Minamoto Kiyomaro(源清麿)    Once my family possession

  • Tosa (四国: Shikoku area) ———————————————— Sa Yukohide (左行秀)
  • Satsuma (鹿児島: Kagoshima) ———— Oku Moptohira (奥元平) Namino Hira (波平)

Meiji Ishin-To

Right before the Meiji Restoration, long swords (approx. 3 feet) with no curvature were made.  Sa Yukihide (from Tosa) forged this type of sword.  Saigo Takamori (西郷隆盛)、 Sakamoto Ryoma (坂本龍馬) owned this type of swords.  Both are famous historical characters during the Meiji Restoration, called Meiji Ishin (明治維新).  Both of them were a part of the Kin’no-to (勤皇党) group which supported the Emperor and renewed the political system.