57| Part 2 of — 23 Sengoku Period Sword (戦国時代刀)

Chapter 57 is a detailed part of Chapter 23,  Sengoku Period Sword.  Please read Chapter 23 Sengoku period sword before reading this section.

0-timeline - size 24 Sengoku Period

                         The red circle above indicates the time we discuss in this section

During the Sengoku period (Warring States time), the Mino Den group and Bizen Osafune group were the primary sword makers.  During almost 100 years of the Warring States period, all Daimyos needed a large number of swords.  If suppliers were closer, that was even better.  Many Sengoku Daimyos (戦国大名: warlord) could reach the Mino area easily because the location was convenient.  Since the Heian period, Mino swordsmiths were creating swords there. 

One of the well-known swordsmiths of Mino Den at the end of the Kamakura period was Shizu Kane’uji (志津兼氏).  He was one of the Masamune Jitteru (正宗十哲)*.   But the real height for the Mino Den was the Sengoku periodDuring the Sengoku period, the Shizu group and the Tegai group from the Yamato area and many swordsmiths from Yamashiro (Kyoto) area moved to Mino.  Mino became the busiest sword-making place.  They made very practical swords for the Sengoku (Warring States Period) feudal lords.

60-mino-map.jpg

*Masamune Juttetsu (正宗十哲) —–The original meaning of Masamuren Jittetsu was the top 10 Masamune studentsHowever, later, this word was used more broadly.                Masamune Jittetsu (正宗十哲):https://www.touken-world.jp/tips/7194/

Three examples of Sengoku period swords

Three swords below are examples of the Sengoku period swords.  Please note that every sword is different.  Even each swords made by the same swordsmith is different.  Please refer to Chapter 23 Sengoku Period Sword for the primary common characteristics of the sword made during the Sengoku period,

60-sukesada-photo-e1563148031935.jpg 60 Sukesada illustration

Bizen Osafune Yosozaemon Sukesada (備前国住長船与三左衛門尉祐定) from Sano Museum Catalog (permission granted).

 Characteristis on the sword above

Hamon is Kani-no-tsume (crab claw pattern, see above Hamon).  Kani-no-tsume pattern hamon never appeared in the Heian, Kamakura, or Nanboku-cho period.  This type of Hamon is one of the decisive points to determine as a Sengoku Period sword.  Marudome-hi (the end of the groove is round ) often appears on the Bizen Den sword during the Sengoku period.  Wide tempered area.  Midare-komi Boshi (Hamon on the body and the Boshi is the same type) has a long turn-back and an abrupt stop.  Hamon is the Nioi base.  Most Bizen swords have Nioi, with a few exceptions.

60 Kanesada photo  60 kanesada illustration Izuminokami Fujiwara Kanesada (和泉守藤原兼) from Sano Museum Catalog

Characteristic  on the sword above

The last letter of the Kanji (Chinese characters) of the swordsmith’s name above is “.”  We use this uncommon letter in place of common “ 定”  for him.  The reason is there are two Kanesada.  To distinguish him from the other Kanesada (兼定), we instead use the letter “ “ and call him Nosada “のさだ.”

Izuminokami Fujiwara Kanesada (AKA Nosada) is the top swordsmith of Mino Den at the time.  The sword’s shape is the typical Sengoku period style: shallow curvature, Chu-gissaki (medium size Kissaki), and pointed Gunome Hamon.  The width of the Hamon is wide and narrow.  Often, Nosada and other Mino Den swordsmiths have wood grain patterns with Masame on Ji-hadaNioi base, mixed with coarse Nie.

 

60 Norimitsu photo  60-norimitsu-illustraton.jpg                     Bizen Osafune NorimitsTu (備前長船法光) from Sano Museum Catalog, permission granted.

Characteristic on the sword above

Shallow curvature.  Sturdy look.  Marudome-hi (Hi ends round)Pointed Hamon called Togari-ba (尖り刃).  Nioi base mixed with Nie.  Slight Masame and wood grain pattern on Ji-hada.

49| Part 2 of — 15 The Revival of Yamato Den (大和伝復活)

This chapter is a continued part of Chapter 15|The Revival of Yamato Den.   Please read chapter 15 before reading this section.

0-timeline - size 24 Late Kamakura                          The red circle above indicates the time we discuss in this section

At the end of the Kamakura period, in the Yamato area, powerful temples expanded their territories.  See the map below for the location of the Yamato area.  Several big temples, especially those with large territories, had political and military power to control the area at the end of the Kamakura period.  Those big territories were called Shoen (荘園).  They employed a large number of monk soldiers called So-hei.  The demand for swords was increased by the increased number of Sohei (僧兵).  The increased demand revived the Yamato Den.  

Some of the prominent temples had their own swordsmiths within their territory. Todaiji Temple (東大寺) backed Tegai (手掻) sword group.  The Senjuin (千手院 ) sword group lived near Senju-do (千手堂) where Senju Kannon (千手観音) was enshrined.  The name of the sword group, Taima came from the Taima-ji Temple (当麻寺).  Shikkake group (尻懸) and Hosho group (保昌) were also Yamato Den sword groups.  Those five groups are called Yamato Goha (Yamato five groups).

51 Japan map Yamato

General Characteristic of Yamato Den

Yamato Den (大和伝) sword always shows Masame (柾目: straight grain-like pattern) somewhere on Ji-hada, Jigane, or Hamon.   Refer to 15| The Revival of Yamato Den(大和伝復活) for the general characteristic.  Masame is sometimes mixed with Mokume (burl like pattern) or Itame (wood-grain like).  Either way, Yamato Den shows Masame somewhere.  Some swords show Masame on the entire body, and some show less.  Because of Masame, the Hamon tends to show Sunagashi (brush stroke-like pattern) or a double line called Niju-ha.

Taima (or Taema) group (当麻)

  • Shape ———————– Middle Kamakura period shape and Ikubi-kissaki style    
  • Hamon ———–Mainly medium Suguha.  Double HamonSuguha mixed with Choji.  Often shows Inazuma and Kinsuji, especially Inazuma appear under the Yokote line.
  • Boshi ————————- Often Yakizume.  Refer Yakizume on 15| The Revival of Yamato Den(大和伝復活)
  • Ji-hada ——————– Small wood grain pattern and well-kneaded surface.  At the top part of the sword, the wood grain pattern becomes Masame.

Shikkake Group (尻懸 

  • Shape —————- Late Kamakura period shape. Refer 14| Late Kamakura Period: Sword (鎌倉末太刀) 
  • Hamon ————————- Mainly Nie (we say Nie-hon’i).  Medium frayed Suguha, mixed with small irregular and Gunome (half-circle like pattern).  Double-lined, brush stroke-like Pattern may appear.  Small Inazuma and Kinsuji may show.      
  • Boshi ———————— Yakizume, Hakikake (bloom trace like pattern) and Ko-maru (small round)     
  • Ji-hada ———- Small burl mixed with Masame.  The Shikkake group sometimes shows Shikkake-hada, the Ha side shows Masame and the mune side shows burl.

Tegai Group ( 手掻 )

  • Shape —— Early Kamakura shape and thick Kasane (body).  High ShinogiKoshizori.
  • Hamon ————- Narrow tempered line with medium Suguha hotsure (frayed Suguha).   Mainly Nie.   Double tempered line.  Inazuma and Kinsuji appears.                                                                 
  • Boshi ————————————— Yakizume (no turn back), Kaen (flame like).   
  • Ji-Hada ————————————————— Fine burl mixed with Masame. 

51 Kanenaga photo Yamato51 Kanenaga ilustration Yamato

Tegai Kanenaga of Yamato.  From Sano Museum Catalogue (permission granted).  The illustration (called Oshigata) shows Notare (wave-like Hamon) and Suguha-hotsure (frayed Suguha) with kinsuji.

Below is my Yamato sword.  I obtained this sword at an Annual San Francisco swords show a few years back. 

Characteristics:  Munei (shortened and no signature).  Yamato Den, Tegai-ha (Yamato school Tegai group).  Length is two shaku two sun eight &1/2 bu (27 1/4 inches): very small kissaki and funbari.

My Yamato sword

The entire view of the sword and Kantei-sho (NBTHK Certification).  The ranking is “Tokubetsu Hozon Token”.

My Yamato sword 5

My Yamato sword 4

My Yamato sword.jpg 2

In Hamon, Sunagashi, Niju-ba shows very faintly.   My photo of Boshi is not good, but it looks like Yakizume Jihada is Itame with Masame, almost Nashiji-hada (possibly because of my eyes).  Nie-hon’i.  Please ignore the cloth pattern underneath reflecting on the blade.