57| Part 2 of — 23 Sengoku Period Sword (戦国時代刀)

Chapter 57 is a detailed part of Chapter 23,  Sengoku Period Sword.  Please read Chapter 23 Sengoku period sword before reading this section.

0-timeline - size 24 Sengoku Period

                         The red circle above indicates the time we discuss in this section

During the Sengoku period (Warring States time), the Mino Den group and Bizen Osafune group were the primary sword makers.  During almost 100 years of the Warring States period, all Daimyos needed a large number of swords.  If suppliers were closer, that was even better.  Many Sengoku Daimyos (戦国大名: warlord) could reach the Mino area easily because the location was convenient.  Since the Heian period, Mino swordsmiths were creating swords there. 

One of the well-known swordsmiths of Mino Den at the end of the Kamakura period was Shizu Kane’uji (志津兼氏).  He was one of the Masamune Jitteru (正宗十哲)*.   But the real height for the Mino Den was the Sengoku periodDuring the Sengoku period, the Shizu group and the Tegai group from the Yamato area and many swordsmiths from Yamashiro (Kyoto) area moved to Mino.  Mino became the busiest sword-making place.  They made very practical swords for the Sengoku (Warring States Period) feudal lords.

60-mino-map.jpg

*Masamune Juttetsu (正宗十哲) —–The original meaning of Masamuren Jittetsu was the top 10 Masamune studentsHowever, later, this word was used more broadly.                Masamune Jittetsu (正宗十哲):https://www.touken-world.jp/tips/7194/

Three examples of Sengoku period swords

Three swords below are examples of the Sengoku period swords.  Please note that every sword is different.  Even each swords made by the same swordsmith is different.  Please refer to Chapter 23 Sengoku Period Sword for the primary common characteristics of the sword made during the Sengoku period,

60-sukesada-photo-e1563148031935.jpg 60 Sukesada illustration

Bizen Osafune Yosozaemon Sukesada (備前国住長船与三左衛門尉祐定) from Sano Museum Catalog (permission granted).

 Characteristis on the sword above

Hamon is Kani-no-tsume (crab claw pattern, see above Hamon).  Kani-no-tsume pattern hamon never appeared in the Heian, Kamakura, or Nanboku-cho period.  This type of Hamon is one of the decisive points to determine as a Sengoku Period sword.  Marudome-hi (the end of the groove is round ) often appears on the Bizen Den sword during the Sengoku period.  Wide tempered area.  Midare-komi Boshi (Hamon on the body and the Boshi is the same type) has a long turn-back and an abrupt stop.  Hamon is the Nioi base.  Most Bizen swords have Nioi, with a few exceptions.

60 Kanesada photo  60 kanesada illustration Izuminokami Fujiwara Kanesada (和泉守藤原兼) from Sano Museum Catalog

Characteristic  on the sword above

The last letter of the Kanji (Chinese characters) of the swordsmith’s name above is “.”  We use this uncommon letter in place of common “ 定”  for him.  The reason is there are two Kanesada.  To distinguish him from the other Kanesada (兼定), we instead use the letter “ “ and call him Nosada “のさだ.”

Izuminokami Fujiwara Kanesada (AKA Nosada) is the top swordsmith of Mino Den at the time.  The sword’s shape is the typical Sengoku period style: shallow curvature, Chu-gissaki (medium size Kissaki), and pointed Gunome Hamon.  The width of the Hamon is wide and narrow.  Often, Nosada and other Mino Den swordsmiths have wood grain patterns with Masame on Ji-hadaNioi base, mixed with coarse Nie.

 

60 Norimitsu photo  60-norimitsu-illustraton.jpg                     Bizen Osafune NorimitsTu (備前長船法光) from Sano Museum Catalog, permission granted.

Characteristic on the sword above

Shallow curvature.  Sturdy look.  Marudome-hi (Hi ends round)Pointed Hamon called Togari-ba (尖り刃).  Nioi base mixed with Nie.  Slight Masame and wood grain pattern on Ji-hada.

56| Part 2 of — 22 Sengoku Period History (戦国時代歴史) 

Chapter 56 is a detailed part of chapter 22 Sengoku Period History.  Please read chapter 22 Sengoku Period History before reading this chapter.

0-timeline - size 24 Sengoku Period                               
                               The circle above indicate the time we discuss in this section

22| Sengoku Period History (戦国時代歴史) explained how we separated the timeline based on political history and sword history.  The center timeline above shows the Sengoku Period (戦国時代) ends in 1596 for sword history. 

1596 is the beginning of the Keicho (慶長) era.  The swords made in and after the Keicho era are called Shin-to (new sword), and swords before the Keicho era are called Ko-to (old sword).  Therefore, the beginning of the Keicho era is the dividing line.  The swords made during the Keicho time is technically Shin-to, but they are specially called Keicho Shin-to.                                                                                                                         

22| Sengoku Period History (戦国時代歴史) described the overview of the Sengoku Period.  At the beginning of the Sengoku Period, 30 or so small Sengoku Daimyo (warlord) fought fiercely with each other.  They allied with a neighboring territory on and off and sometimes betrayed each other.  The stronger Daimyo took over weaker ones’ territories.  Little by little, the number of Daimyo became lesser.  The names of known powerful Daimyo are Imagawa Yoshimoto (今川義元), Takeda Shingen (武田信玄), Uesugi Kenshin (上杉謙信), Hojo Soun (北条早雲), Oda Nobunaga (織田信長),  Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (豊臣秀吉).  Their final goal was to defeat others and advance to Kyoto (京都) to be the supreme political power. 

Oda Nobunaga (織田信長) defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto in Okehazama (桶狭間)

Around 1560, Imagawa Yoshimoto (今川義元) controlled a significant part of  Suruga (today’s Shizuoka prefecture.  See the map below for the location).  He was a powerful Sengoku Daimyo who was big enough to be the top ruler of the country. 

Imagawa clan decided to advance his army toward Kyoto to take over the governmentHe took 25,000 men troop with him.  On his way up to Kyoto, they needed to pass Owari (尾張: Aichi prefecture today.  See map below for the location), Oda Nobunaga’s territory.  

Oda Nobunaga (織田信長) was still a young man who had much less means than Imagawa Yoshimoto.  It was quite apparent that there was no chance for Oda Nobunaga to beat Imagawa.  He had just become the head of Owari after his father’s death.  Also, at that time, Nobunaga was called “The idiot of Owari” because of his eccentric behaviors (he was actually a genius). 

Not too many people had much confidence in him.  Among  Oda vassals, some insisted on just staying inside the castle instead of going out and fighting since Nobunaga managed to gather only 3,000 men.  But in the end, to everyone’s surprise, the Oda side won.  Here is how it happened. 

While Imagawa Yoshimoto was advancing, Nobunaga scouted which route Imagawa would take. Imagawa’s side was sure to win this easy battle since the Oda clan was small, and the head of the clan was an idiot.  Imagawa troops decided to stop and rest in a place called Okehazama.   The road going through Okehazama was long and narrow.  Knowing Imagawa troop would come this way, Nobunaga sent out his men disguised as farmers and offered food and sake to Imagawa soldiersWhile they were having a good time, Oda Nobunaga made a surprise attack on the Imagawa troop.

On top of that, all of a sudden, it began raining heavily.  The rain was so heavy that the Imagawa troop could not even see the Oda troop was coming.  In the end, Imagawa Yoshimoto was killed by the Oda side in the battle.  After this, the Imagawa clan declined.

59 Okehazama drawing

Bishu Okehazama Gassen (備州桶狭間合戦) by Utagawa Toyonobu (歌川豊信)   Public Domain (http://morimiya.net/online/ukiyoe-big-files/U896.html)

59-imagawa-and-oda-map.jpg

Oda Nobunaga(織田信長) and Akechi Mitsuhide(明智光秀)

After the battle of Okehazama, the Oda clan grew bigger rapidly.  Oda Nobunaga became the primary power.  While his reign, he did several cruel things like burning Enryaku-ji Temple (延暦寺) and killing many people, including ordinary people,  yet his economic measures encouraged commercial activities. 

Things were going somewhat smoothly for Nobunaga late in his life.  But in 1582, Nobunaga was killed by his own top vassal, Akechi Mitsuhide (明智光秀), at Hon’nou-ji (本能寺) Temple in KyotoNobunaga was 49 years old. 

A few theories about why Akecdhi attacked and killed Nobunaga, but we don’t know what exactly happened.  One speculation is Akechi had a grudge against Nobunaga. There were many incidents where Nobunaga mistreated Akechi.  Another is that Akechi saw a chance to attack Nobunaga (Nobunaga was with a very few men on that day) and took the opportunity.  The other is:  Shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki (足利義昭) and his surroundings ordered Akechi to kill Nobunaga since Akechi had once worked under him.  Shogun Yoshiaki was afraid that Nobunaga would become too powerful.  More theories go on.  We don’t know the real reason; we still debate over it.  It is one big mystery of Japanese history.  

After this happened, the news was relayed to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a counterpart of Akechi under Nobunaga.  At that time, Hideyoshi happened to be in  Bicchu (備中, Okayama prefecture today), which was about 230 KM (143 miles) away from Kyoto (See the map below).   Hideyoshi quickly returned to Kyoto with his troop to avenge his master against Akechi and killed him. 

Here is another mystery.  The time between Nobunaga was killed, and the time Akechi was killed by Hideyoshi was only ten days.  Hideyoshi was 230 KM (143 miles) away.  There were many mountains and rivers in between.  That means in 10 days, Hideyoshi received the information of Nobunaga’s death, packed up hurried back 230 KM (143 miles) to Kyoto with his large number of soldiers and fought against Akechi and killed him.   Their means of transportation at the time were minimal.  Even though Hideyoshi had a communication route established between Nobunaga’s inner circle all the time, it is an amazing speed.  There are also speculations that Akechi and Hideyoshi were behind together (?) or some other secret plot behind the incidents. 

59-bicchu-map.jpg

After Hideyoshi killed Akechi, Hideyoshi cleverly maneuvered his way up to the top of the power.  While Hideyoshi was in charge, he mined a large amount of gold from the gold mines he possessed.  There is a record stating that Hideyoshi buried a vast amount of gold somewhere.  But we have never found it yet. 

Hideyoshi was a poor farmer’s son who became the most powerful man in the country.  His success story fascinates the Japanese.  Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu are the three most depicted subjects on TV programs and movies.  After Hideyoshi died of natural causes, Tokugawa Ieyasu became Shogun, and the Edo period started.

The reference source                                                                                                      *Rekijin.com/?p=31448-キャッシュ                                                                                    *Bushoojapan.com/scandal/2019/06/02/51145-キャッシュ            

55 |Part 2 of —–21 Muromachi Period Sword (室町時代刀)

Chapter 55 is the detailed part of chapter 21|Muromachi Period Sword.  Please read Chapter 21 before reading this section.

57 Muromach-timeline size 22

                         The circle above indicates the time we discuss in this section

After the Muromachi period, swords changed to Katana(刀) from Tachi (太刀), as described in chapter 21 Muromachi Period Sword.  Refer to 21| Muromachi Period Sword (室町時代刀)  .  By the end of the Nanboku-cho period, the swords’ length became shorter to approximately 2 feet ± a few inches.  The 3-to-5 feet long swords seen in the Nanboku-cho period were no longer created.  The reason was that, during the Nanboku-cho period, warriors fought mostly riding horses, but after the Muromachi time, infantry fighting became more common.

Oei Bizen (応永備前)                                                                                                             The pronunciation of Oei is“O as Oh” and “ei as A of ABC.”   The Muromachi period was the declining time in sword making.  The swords made during the early Muromachi period in the Bizen area were called Oei BizenOsafune Morimitsu (長船盛光), Osafune Yasumitsu (長船康光), Osafune Moromitsu (長船師光) were the main Oei Bizen swordsmiths.  Soshu Hiromasa (相州広正)、Yamashiro Nobukuni (山城信國)  were also similar to the Oei Bizen style.  Please refer to 21| Muromachi Period Sword (室町時代刀) for Muromachi sword shape, Hamon, Boshi, and Ji-hada.

57 Moromitsu photo (必要分 57 Moromitus Oshigata

Bishu Osafune Moromitsu (備州長船師光)   from Sano Museum Catalogue ((permission granted)

The above Osafune Moromitsu sword is 2 feet 5 inches long with medium Kissaki.  The Hamon has a small wave-like pattern with continuous Gunome (a lined half-circles).  The Boshi area shows irregular waviness with a slightly pointed tip.  Very faint Bo-utsuri (soft shadow shaped like a strip of wood) shows on Ji-hadaBo-utsuri is a distinctive characteristic among all of the Oei Bizen.

Before the Muromachi period, there had been many swordsmith groups in the Bizen area, but by the Muromachi time began, Osafune (長船) was the only remaining active group.

Osafune (長船) is the name of a region, but it became the last name of the swordsmiths during the Muromachi time.  Two other well-known swordsmiths among the Oei Bizen were Osafune Morimitsu (盛光) and Osafune Yasumitsu (康光).  The Hamon by Morimitsu and Yasumitsu shows more work than that of the sword in the photo above.  Chapter 21| Muromachi Period Sword (室町時代刀) shows the Hamon by Morimitsu and Yasumitsu, also describes typical characteristics of the swords in the Muromachi period.

Hirazukuri Ko-Wakizashi Tanto

58 Hirazukuri Ko-Wakizashi Tanto

Hirazukuri Ko-Wakizashi Tanto Shape

Hirazukuri Ko-wakizashi Tanto was the trendy style during the early Muromachi time. Swordsmiths in different areas created the Tantos like the one above.  But majorities of this types were made by Oei Bizen swordsmiths.

The characteristic of the Hirazukuri ko-wakizashi Tanto ——— Usually 1 foot and 1 or 2 inches long.  No Yokote line, no Shinogi, and no Sori (no curvature, straight back). Average thickness.  Narrow width.  Gyo-no-mune (refer 12| The Middle Kamakura Period Tanto

13 Mune drawing

Hirazukuri Ko-wakizashi Tanto often shows many engravings.  Hi with Soe-hi (parallel double line, wide and narrow side by side ), Tokko-tsuki-ken, Tsume-tsuki-ken, Bonji, etc.

9 Hi, Suken, Bonji20 Tokko, tume Ken  58 tsumetukiken and Hi

*drawings from “Nihonto no Okite to Tokucho” by Honami Koson

 

54|Part 2 of — 20|Muromachi Period History (室町時代歴史)


This is a detailed part of the 20 | Muromachi Period History.  Please read chapter 20 before reading this section.

0-timeline - size 24 Nuromach & Sengoku

                      The red circleabove indicate the time we discuss in this chapter

Until the Muromachi (室町) period, the political history and the sword history are parallel in our study.  The above timelines show:  the middle line is for the sword history, and the bottom line is for the political history.  

The styles of swords were distinctively different between those in the Muromachi period and the Sengoku period (戦国時代).  Therefore, for sword study, the Muromachi period and the Sengoku period have to be separated.   Japanese history textbooks define that the Muromachi period is from 1393 (the end of Nanboku-cho) until 1573 when Oda Nobunaga (織田信長) removed Shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki (足利義昭) from Kyoto (the fall of the Muromachi Bakufu).   In those textbooks, the Sengoku period is described as a part of the Muromachi period.  However, we need to divide the Muromachi period and the Sengoku period for the sword study’s purpose.

 Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (足利義満)

The best time during the Muromachi period was when Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (足利義満, Grandson of Ashikaga Takauji) was in power.  He moved the Bakufu to Muromachi (室町) in Kyoto; therefore, it is called the Muromachi period.  By the time most of the South Dynasty Samurai went under the North Dynasty, the South Dynasty accepted the Shogun Yoshimitsu’s offer to end the fight against the North Dynasty.  This acceptance established the power of the Ashikaga family in the Muromachi Bakufu

Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu created a tremendous amount of profit from trades with China (Ming).  He built a famous beautiful resort villa in Kyoko, the Golden Pavillion (Kinkaku-Ji Temple 金閣寺*).  It is said that he created the Golden Pavillion to display his power and wealth.  The beautiful culture called the Kitayama Bunka (Kitayama culture 北山文化) was created around this time.

*Golden Pavilion (Kinkaku-Ji Tempe金閣寺)  —– The official name is Rokuon-ji Temple (鹿苑寺).  Saionji Kintsune (西園寺公経) built it first as his resort house in the Kamakura period.  Shogun Yoshimitsu acquired it in 1397, and he rebuilt it as his villa.  He also used it as an official guesthouse. 

After Shogun Yoshimitsu’s death, the villa was converted to Rokuon-ji Temple.  It is a part of Rinzaishu Sokoku-ji Temple, which is the head temple of a denomination of the Zen sect, Rinzaishu Sokoku-ji group(臨済宗相国寺派).  Kinkaku-ji is a reliquary hall containing relics of Buddha.  Kinkaku-ji Temple represents the glorious Kitayama Bunka (Kitayama culture).  In 1994, it was registered as a World Cultural Heritage Site. https://www.shokoku-ji.jp/kinkakuji/

57 Kinkakuji trip 2019                                                               My photo  May 2019,

Ashikaga Yoshimasa (足利義政)

After Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (足利義満) died, the Muromachi Bakufu became less financially prosperous, and the military power decreased.  As a result, Daimyos (feudal lords) gained more control.  A few generations after Shogun Yoshimitsu, Ashikaga Yohimasa became the 8th Shogun).  His wife was the famous Hino Tomiko (refer  Hino tomiko Chapter 20|Muromachi Period History (室町時代歴史)

It is said that Shogun Yoshimasa was not interested in his job as a Shogun, but he was much more interested in art and culture.  He created the foundation of today’s Japanese art and culture, such as the Japanese garden, Shoin-zukuri (書院造)* interior design, tea ceremony, flower arrangements, painting, and other art forms.  His cultural attribute is called Higashiyama Bunka (Higashiyama culture (東山文化).  

As described in 20|Muromachi Period History (室町時代歴史) , Shogun Yoshimasa did not have a child.  His brother Yoshimi (義視) was supposed to be the next Shogun.  But his wife, Hino Tomiko, gave birth to a son, Yoshihisa (義尚).  Hino Tomiko asked Yamana Sozen (山名宗全; powerful family) to back up her son.  At the same time, brother, Yoshimi, tied up with Hosokawa Katsumoto (another powerful family 細川勝元).  The problem was that Shogun Yoshimasa was paying too much attention to all his cultural hobbies, and did not pay attention to the problem he created by not being clear who should be the next Shogun.  He did not yield the Shogunate to either one. 

In 1467, on top of the successor problem, because of other conflicts of interests of other powerful Daimyo, a civil war, “Onin-no-Run (応仁の乱 )” broke out.  All Daimyo were divided and sided either the Hosokawa group or the Yamana group.   Eventually, the war spread to the rest of Japan and lasted over ten years.  Finally, in 1477, after both Hosokawa Katsumoto and Yamana Sozen died, Shogun Yoshimasa decided to transfer the Shogunate to his son Yoshihisa.  Because of this war, Kyoto was devastated.  The power of the Muromachi Bakufu declined significantly. 

While all this was happening, and people were suffering, Yoshimasa was still spending money to build the Ginkaku-ji Temple (The Silver Pavillion: 銀閣寺).  He died without seeing the completion of the Ginkaku-ji Temple.  The Onin-no-Run would lead to the next Sengoku period, the 100-year-long Warring States Period).

*Shoin-zukuri (書院造)———- A traditional Japanese residential interior style with Tatami mats, a nook, and a Shoji screen, sliding door.  This style is the base of the interior of the Japanese house today.

Shoin Zukuri style Japanese room

57 Shoin zukuri

Public Domain   GFDL,cc-by-sa-2.5,2.0,1.0 file: Takagike CC BY-SA 3.0view terms      File: Takagike Kashihara JPN 001.jpg

My japanese room                                                                      My Japanese room

53| Part 2 of — 19 Nanboku-cho Period Tanto (南北朝短刀)

This chapter is a continued part of chapter 19.  Please read 19 |Nanboku-Cho Period Tanto(南北朝短刀), before reading this section.

0-timeline - size 24 Nanboku-cho

                          The red circle above indicates the time we discuss in this section

20 Enbun Jyoji Kowakizashi Tanto

The drawing above is a typical shape of the Nanboku-cho time Tanto.  This drawing was in chapter 19.  This drawing exaggerates the form of the Enbun Joji Kowakizashi tanto.  At the end of Chapter 19 | Nanboku-Cho Tanto(南北朝短刀), there is a list of swordsmiths’ names in the period.  Hiromitsu (広光) and Akihiro (秋広) represent the most common characteristics of Nanboku-cho Tanto.

56 cropped Hiromitu photo 20 Hitatsura

Hiromitsu From Sano Museum Catalogue (permission to use granted granted)

Enbun Joji Ko-wakizashi Tanto is also called Sun-nobi Tanto (>10 inches) because the length is longer than standard size (approx. 10 inches) TantoThe top part of the Tanto bends outward slightly. This type of shape is called Sakizori.

Characteristics of Hiromitu (広光) and Akihiro (秋広)

  • Shape———————— Usually, one foot and one to two inches long (Sun-nobi).   Wide width.  The blade is thin.  Sakizori.
  • Hamon ———————-Wide Hamon and narrow Hamon are mixed.  Hamon around Yakidashi (right above Machi) area is narrow, but it gets wider gradually as it goes up.  Hamon around the Fukura area is the showiest.  Mainly Nie.  Sunagashi, Kinsuji, Gunome, Umanoha-midare (horse teeth shape Hamon), or Hitatsura appear (above drawing).
  • Boshi———–Irregular, unevenly tempered.  Hamon covers almost entire Boshi. Deep turn back.
  • Jihada ———————————————————Wood-grained pattern
  • Nakago —————–Tanago-bara shape.  Refer to 19 Nanboku-cho Period Tanto.

Nobukuni (Below is my sword)

Shodai Nobukuni (the first generation Nobukuni) was a student of Sadamune.  He was one of the Sadamune San Tetsu (貞宗三哲, Sadamune’s top three students).  Nobukuni’s characteristics were similar to those of Hiromitsu’s and Akihiro’s described above.  Nobukuni also created Sun-nobi Tanto.  The sword below has a Hoso-suguha, Ko-mokume (small burl pattern), Ko-maru Boshi (small round).

56 Nobukuni 1 Nobukuni4

56 Nobukuni 2

This is the certification of my sword.  Shodai Nobukuni (初代信國).   Juyo Token (重要刀剣)

Certification

number Juyo 3220,    Certification Juyo-Token

Wakizashi:  Nobukuni (信国),  31.4cm length,  0.3cm curvature, HirazukuriMitsumune (three-sided Mune),  Sun-nobi, Ji-hada is wood grain and Ji-nie (nie on the surface between Shinogi and Hamon),  Hamon is Chu-suguha (medium straight),  Front carving shows Bonji (Sanscrit), Sanko-ken, back engraving is Bonji and Hoko (pike).   Original Nakago.  The examination by the Nihon Bijutu Token Hozon Kyokai.  It is certified as Juyo Token.  The Chairman Moritatu HosokawaShowa 45 June 1 (1970 June 1)

52| Part 2 of — 18 Nanboku-Cho Period Swords (南北朝太刀)

This chapter is a continued part of 18| Nanboku-Cho Period Sword.  Please read Chapter 18 before reading this section.

    0-timeline - size 24 Nanboku-cho                     
                      The red circle above indicates the time we discuss in this section

The drawing below is the illustration from Chapter 18 Nanboku-Cho Period Sword .  Please compare this drawing to the photo on the right.  It shows the similarity of the shape.  Keep in mind this illustration is the shape of a once very long sword that was shortened at a later time.   During the Nanboku-cho time, swordsmiths created 3, 4, or even 5 feet long blades, but later, they shortened them to approximately 2 to 2.5 feet or so.

19 Nanboku-cho Sword style      55 Sa photo                                         ” Sa” from Sano Museum Catalogue “Reborn” (Permission granted)     Sa” is pronounced the first sound of “sabotage.”

Chogi* from Sano Museum Catalogue (Permission granted)

55 Chogi

55 Chogi drawing

Chogi* is pronounced: Chocho-san’s “cho” and giggle “gi.” 

Chogi‘s sword style is categorized as one of the Soden Bizen.  See, 18| Nanboku-Cho Period Sword (南北朝太刀).  Chogi (長義) was a swordsmith from Bizen Den school who created swords with Soshu Den’s characteristicsTherefore, in short, called Soden Bizen (Bizen swordsmith forged Soshu Den).

 Chogi characteristics

  • Shape ———– Originally very long. It was shortened to approximately 2 to 2.5 feet.  
  • Hamon ——–Wide showy tempered line.  Nioi, and Nie shows.  Sunagashi (砂流し brush stroke-like pattern) appears.  Notare (wavy) mixed with Gunome.  Sometimes Chogi created the double Gunome-style Hamon (connected one pair of half-circles). This shape resembles a pair of earlobes.  Therefore, it is called Chogi’s Mimigatamidare (irregular Hamon mixed with the earlobe-like pattern).                                                                                                                  
  • Boshi ——————————— Irregular Midare and sharp turn back
  • Ji-hada —————————————— Itame (a wood grain pattern)

 Aoe from Sano Museum Catalogue (Permission granted)

55 Aoe55 Aoe ilustlation                

Aoe (青江) is pronounced “A” like apple, “o” like original, and “e” like egg.  Aoe was a swordsmith from Bittchu (備中) province, which is next to Bizen.  Therefore, the characteristics of Ko-aoe (old Aoe) and Ko-bizen (old Bizen) are similar.

55 Bizen Bittchu map

Characteristic of Aoe (青江)

From the middle Kamakura period to the Nanboku-cho period was the height of the Aoe group. One of the characteristics of the Aoe sword is its Aoe-zori shape.  That is to curve a lot at the lower part. 

During the Nanboku-cho time, because the Soshu Den was the trendy style, even Bizen swordsmiths did Nie, though their main characteristic was Nioi.   However, the Bittchu group stayed with Nioi. 

The tempered area tends to be wide.  Sakasa-choji, which means inverted or backward style Choji (see the illustration above), is the Aoe’s most notable characteristic.  Also, Boshi often has pointed Hamon.  It is often said that if you see Sakasa-choji, the sword has a good chance of being from either the Aoe group or Katayama Ichimonji group.  Sumitetu (澄鉄:  black core metal shows through) is also Aoe’s characteristic.

 

51| Part 2 of — 17 Nanboku-Cho Period History 1333 – 1392 (南北朝歴史)

This section is a continued part of 17|Nanboku(Yoshino) Cho Period History (1333-1392) .  Please read Chapter 17 before reading this section.

0-timeline - size 24 Nanboku-cho

                      The red circle above indicates the time we discuss in this section

 The Nanboku-cho period (1333 – 1392) was between the fall of Kamakura Bakufu and the beginning of the Muromachi Bakufu.  It was the time when the North Dynasty and the South Dynasty co-existed at the same time.  Right around the time of the Mongolian Invasion, Emperor Go-saga passed away without deciding the next emperor.  Because of that, his two heirs and their family lines, the Daigakuji-to (大覚寺統) line and the Jimyoin-to (持明院統) line, alternately took the emperor position after Emperor Go-saga‘s death.  This system was politically precarious.  On top of that, many inconvenient problems happened; for example, while one emperor was still very young, the next-in-line emperor died young from a head injury when he was playing on a slippery stone.

At a time like this, Go-daigo (後醍醐天皇) became the emperor.  He was put on the throne as a temporary emperor until young emperors grew up.  Around this time, the power of the emperors was declining.  The Kamakura Bakufu (government) controlled the emperors.  After the Mongolian Invasion, even though typhoons chased Mongolian troops away, Kamakura Bakufu was in financial trouble because of the cost of war.  Many Samurai who fought during the Mongolian Invasion did not receive any rewards nor got paid for the expense they incurred themselves.  They were also in trouble financially.  All these problems piled up, and people resented the Kamakura Bakufu.

Emperor Go-daigo did not want to stay as just a filler emperor.  He decided to remain as an emperor himself and decided to attack the Kamakura Bakufu.  For some reason, the Kamakura Bakufu found out about the plan.  Emperor Go-daigo somehow managed to avoid being accused as an instigator.  After this happened, the Kamakura Bakufu appointed another heir for the next emperor.  But Go-daigo insisted on remaining as an emperor.  He planned another attack one more time.  This time, he had carefully planned and allied with prominent, powerful temples in Yamato (Nara today) since the Kamakura Bakufu did not control themRefer, 15| The Revival of Yamato Den(大和伝復活)and 49| Part 2 of — 15 The Revival of Yamato Den (大和伝復活) .

This time again, the rebellion plot came to light.  Go-daigo sneaked out of Kyoto and fought against the Kamakura army.  Go-daigo’s army had fewer soldiers than the Kamakura army, but several groups opposing the Kamakura Bakufu rose from various places throughout Japan.  Eventually, Go-daigo was captured and sent to Oki Island (the same place where Emperor Go-toba was sent).

Even after sending Emperor Go-daigo to Oki island, the Kamakura Bakufu still had to fight against other uprising groups.  One of the famous rebels was Kusunoki Masashige  (楠正成).  Go-daigo’s son was also actively fighting against the Kamakura Bakufu and managing to ally with more groups.

More and more people wanted to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu.   Even Ashikaga Takauji (足利尊氏), one of the Kamakura Bakufu’s top men who fought against Emperor Go-daigo, betrayed the Kamakura, and changed sides, and became the emperor’s ally.  In the meantime, Go-daigo escaped from Oki Island.  More and more uprisings against the Kamakura Bakufu emerged from everywhere.  Eventually, the main political center called Rokuhara Tandai (六波羅探題) of the Kamakura Bakufu fell.  Nitta Yoshisada (新田義貞)*, who was another uprising group attacked Kamakura and won.  The Kamakura Bakufu fell in 1333.

Emperor Go-Daigo started a new political system called Kenmu no Shinsei (建武の新政).  This new system was a disaster.  He made a great effort to make things right, and changed the old political system drastically.  But this political reform created a big commotion.  It was not good for anybody, and nobody would gain anything.   Ashikaga Takauji (one of the prominent people of merit) and his men did not receive any high-ranking jobs.  His new reform was very idealistic and too far advanced for the time.  It was too disadvantageous for the noblemen.  His new policy only invited chaos and corruption.

Now Ashikaga Takauji turned against Go-daigo and defeated him.  Go-daigo left the Imperial Palace and opened a new government in Yoshino, the south of Kyoto.  Therefore, it was called the Southern Dynasty.  Meanwhile, Ashikaga Takauji set up a new emperor, Emperor Komyo (光明), in Kyoto, and established the North Dynasty.  This is how the North and South Dynasties came about.

Two dynasties co-existed for about 60 years.  Little by little, many samurai groups moved under the North Dynasty, and after Go-daigo and his several key men passed away, the South Dynasty became weakened.  Eventually, the South Dynasty accepted the offer from the Ashikaga side, and the North and the South united in 1392.  During all those fights between the emperor and Kamakura Bakufu, the sword style changed to broader and longer, like 3, 4, or 5 feet long.  Later, most of the Nanboku-cho (the North and South Dynasties) style long swords were shortened.

53 Ashikaga Takauji

Kibamusha (騎馬武者像)     This portrait was once believed to be Ashikaga Takauji, but now some claim otherwise. “Public Domain” owned by Kyoto National Museum

*Nitta Yoshisada (新田義貞)

When Minamoto no Yoritomo opened the Kamakura Bakufu, he chose the Kamakura area as the center of the Bakufu because mountains surrounded Kamakura on three sides, and one side faced the ocean.  That means it was hard to be attacked and easy to protect themselves.  And they made seven narrow, steep roads through mountains called Kiri Toshi (切り通し) connecting with several major cities.  Those seven roads were the only ways to go out and to come into Kamakura.

When Nitta Yoshisada tried to attack Kamakura, he first tried to attack through the land road but failed.  So, he approached the town from the ocean side, but the cliff sticks far out to the ocean, making it impossible for them to pass.  The legend says that when Nitta Yoshisada came to the area called Inamura Gasaki (稲村ヶ崎), he threw his golden sword into the ocean and prayed.  Then the tide went out, and all the soldiers could go around the cliff on foot.  They charged into Kamakura, and the Kamakura Bakufu fell.  There are several different views on the story.  Some scholars say that is not true, some say it happened, but the date was wrong, some say unusual ebb tide occurred that day, and so on.

Today, Inamura Gasaki, a part of the Shonan (湘南), is one of the favorite dating spots for young people in the evening.  The evening scene of Inamura Gasaki is beautiful.  The sunset from Inamura Gasaki toward Enoshima (江の島;a small island with a shrine on the hilltop) is gorgeous.   My parents’ house used to be above the cliff in the vicinity called Kamakura-yama, overlooking the ocean.

53 Inamura gasaki

Inamura Gasaki      Photo is “Creative Commons” CC 表示-継承 3.0 File: Inamuragasaki tottanbu.jpg    Public domain

50|Part 2 of –16 Late Kamakura Period: Tanto (Early Soshu-Den 鎌倉末短刀, 正宗墓)

Chapter 50 is a continued part of 16| Late Kamakura period Tanto (Early Soshu-Den 鎌倉末短刀).  Please read Chapter 16 before reading this section.

0-timeline - size 24 Late Kamakura

                     The red circle above indicates the time we discuss in this section.

In  16| Late Kamakura period: Tanto  (Early Soshu-Den  鎌倉末短刀) ,  the general characteristics of the late Kamakura period Tanto style (early Soshu Den) was described.  The next two photos fit in with the typical features of early Soshu Den Tanto.

Masamune

Goro Nyudo Masamune (五郎入道正宗) was born in Kamakura as a son of Tosaburo Yukimitu (藤三郎行光)Today, Masamune is a very well-known swordsmith, even among those who are not very familiar with the Japanese sword.  His father, Tosaburo Yukimitsu was also one of the top swordsmiths among the early Soshu DenMasamune’s tomb is in Honkaku-JI (本覚寺) Temple, approximately a 6 minutes’ walk from Kamakura station. 

Goro Nyudo Masamune (相州伝五郎入道正宗) from Sano Museum Catalog (permission granted). 

Masamune photo (above) —– Hira-zukuri (flat)Very slightly Sakizori (tip area curves slightly outward).  Bo-hi and Tsure-hi (parallel thin grooves).  Komaru-boshiItame-hada (wood grain pattern).  Hamon is Notare (wavy).  The illustration above shows Sunagashi and Niju-ba (double Hamon).  This type of Nakago is called Tanago-bara.  Masamune Tanto is often Mu-mei (no signature).  This particular tanto is called Komatsu Masamune (小松政宗).  The Sano Museum Catalog’s description stated that connoisseurs in the past had difficulty determining this is Masamune swordBecause the wide Mihaba with sori and hamon was a little different from other Masamune’s.  Judging from the clear Nie, Chikei, and Kinsuji, they determined it was a Masamune Tanto.

Enju Photo below

Higo Province Enju Kunisuke  From Sano Museum Catalog
(permission granted)

Enju (延寿) group lived in Higo (肥後) Province in Kyushu.  The characteristics of the Enju group is very similar to that of the Yamashiro Den’s.  It is because Enju Kunimura was related to Rai Kuniyuki of Yamashiro-Den.

Enju (Photo above) —-Hamon is Hoso-suguha (straight temper line).  Boshi is Komaru.  The front engraving is Suken (left photo left side), and the engraving on the back is Gomabashi (left photo right side).  Ji-hada is a tight Itame.  It is confusing to Kantei (determining who made the sword) a sword like this because even though this sword is from the late Kamakura period, it does not have the typical early Soshu Den look.

Masamune’s Tomb in Honkaku-ji Temple

Masamune’s (正宗) tomb is in the Honkakuj-Ji Temple (本覚寺) in Kamakura.  Here is a map of the Honkaku-Ji Temple and Masamune Kogei store in Kamakura.  This store is owned by Tsunahiro Yamamura, the 24th generation of MasamuneHonkaku-Ji Temple is circled in red, and Masamune Kogei store is the red circle with X.  Both are approximately a 6 to 7 minutes walking distance from Kamakura station. 

To get to Honkaku-Ji Temple from Tokyo

Take the Yokosuka line train from Tokyo station (approx. one hour)  → Get off at Kamakura Station (one stop after Kita-Kamakura) → Exit from the East Exit (front exit) → Go straight and cross the road → Turn right and go up to the post office  → Turn left at the post office (Honkaku-ji Temple sign is at the corner of the post office) →The temple is at a short distance from the post office.

52 Honkakuji map in red

From Kamakura Tourist map

52 Honnkakuji 2 54 large Masamune monument only

52 Honkakuji 54 Small Masamune tomb only

Honkakuji Temple (本覚寺) and Masamune Tomb (正宗墓 ) My trip in 2019

49| Part 2 of — 15 The Revival of Yamato Den (大和伝復活)

This chapter is a continued part of Chapter 15|The Revival of Yamato Den.   Please read chapter 15 before reading this section.

0-timeline - size 24 Late Kamakura                          The red circle above indicates the time we discuss in this section

At the end of the Kamakura period, in the Yamato area, powerful temples expanded their territories.  See the map below for the location of the Yamato area.  Several big temples, especially those with large territories, had political and military power to control the area at the end of the Kamakura period.  Those big territories were called Shoen (荘園).  They employed a large number of monk soldiers called So-hei.  The demand for swords was increased by the increased number of Sohei (僧兵).  The increased demand revived the Yamato Den.  

Some of the prominent temples had their own swordsmiths within their territory. Todaiji Temple (東大寺) backed Tegai (手掻) sword group.  The Senjuin (千手院 ) sword group lived near Senju-do (千手堂) where Senju Kannon (千手観音) was enshrined.  The name of the sword group, Taima came from the Taima-ji Temple (当麻寺).  Shikkake group (尻懸) and Hosho group (保昌) were also Yamato Den sword groups.  Those five groups are called Yamato Goha (Yamato five groups).

51 Japan map Yamato

General Characteristic of Yamato Den

Yamato Den (大和伝) sword always shows Masame (柾目: straight grain-like pattern) somewhere on Ji-hada, Jigane, or Hamon.   Refer to 15| The Revival of Yamato Den(大和伝復活) for the general characteristic.  Masame is sometimes mixed with Mokume (burl like pattern) or Itame (wood-grain like).  Either way, Yamato Den shows Masame somewhere.  Some swords show Masame on the entire body, and some show less.  Because of Masame, the Hamon tends to show Sunagashi (brush stroke-like pattern) or a double line called Niju-ha.

Taima (or Taema) group (当麻)

  • Shape ———————– Middle Kamakura period shape and Ikubi-kissaki style    
  • Hamon ———–Mainly medium Suguha.  Double HamonSuguha mixed with Choji.  Often shows Inazuma and Kinsuji, especially Inazuma appear under the Yokote line.
  • Boshi ————————- Often Yakizume.  Refer Yakizume on 15| The Revival of Yamato Den(大和伝復活)
  • Ji-hada ——————– Small wood grain pattern and well-kneaded surface.  At the top part of the sword, the wood grain pattern becomes Masame.

Shikkake Group (尻懸 

  • Shape —————- Late Kamakura period shape. Refer 14| Late Kamakura Period: Sword (鎌倉末太刀) 
  • Hamon ————————- Mainly Nie (we say Nie-hon’i).  Medium frayed Suguha, mixed with small irregular and Gunome (half-circle like pattern).  Double-lined, brush stroke-like Pattern may appear.  Small Inazuma and Kinsuji may show.      
  • Boshi ———————— Yakizume, Hakikake (bloom trace like pattern) and Ko-maru (small round)     
  • Ji-hada ———- Small burl mixed with Masame.  The Shikkake group sometimes shows Shikkake-hada, the Ha side shows Masame and the mune side shows burl.

Tegai Group ( 手掻 )

  • Shape —— Early Kamakura shape and thick Kasane (body).  High ShinogiKoshizori.
  • Hamon ————- Narrow tempered line with medium Suguha hotsure (frayed Suguha).   Mainly Nie.   Double tempered line.  Inazuma and Kinsuji appears.                                                                 
  • Boshi ————————————— Yakizume (no turn back), Kaen (flame like).   
  • Ji-Hada ————————————————— Fine burl mixed with Masame. 

51 Kanenaga photo Yamato51 Kanenaga ilustration Yamato

Tegai Kanenaga of Yamato.  From Sano Museum Catalogue (permission granted).  The illustration (called Oshigata) shows Notare (wave-like Hamon) and Suguha-hotsure (frayed Suguha) with kinsuji.

Below is my Yamato sword.  I obtained this sword at an Annual San Francisco swords show a few years back. 

Characteristics:  Munei (shortened and no signature).  Yamato Den, Tegai-ha (Yamato school Tegai group).  Length is two shaku two sun eight &1/2 bu (27 1/4 inches): very small kissaki and funbari.

My Yamato sword

The entire view of the sword and Kantei-sho (NBTHK Certification).  The ranking is “Tokubetsu Hozon Token”.

My Yamato sword 5

My Yamato sword 4

My Yamato sword.jpg 2

In Hamon, Sunagashi, Niju-ba shows very faintly.   My photo of Boshi is not good, but it looks like Yakizume Jihada is Itame with Masame, almost Nashiji-hada (possibly because of my eyes).  Nie-hon’i.  Please ignore the cloth pattern underneath reflecting on the blade.

 

48|Part 2 of — 14|Late Kamakura Period Sword : Early Soshu Den (鎌倉末刀)

This chapter is a detailed part of chapter 14| Late Kamakura Period Sword.  Please read chapter 14 before reading this section.

0-timeline - size 24 Late Kamakura

                         The red circle above indicates the time we discuss in this section.

14 Ikubi kissaki Damadge

In Chapter 14| Late Kamakura Period: Sword (鎌倉末太刀), the Ikubi-kissakui sword was explained.  The above illustration shows a flaw that was caused when the damaged area was repaired.  To compensate for this flaw, swordsmiths started a new sword style in the late Kamakura period.  They forged swords with a longer Kissaki and stopped the tip of Hi at a lower point than the Yokote line.   This way, if the Yokote line was lowered when it was repaired, the tip of Hi would stay lower than the Yokote-line.

15 Masamune (Sano)   15 Masamune hamon (Sano)

The above photo is a sword by Goro Nyudo Masamune (五郎入道正宗 ).  Please look at the size and shape of the Kissaki.  This is different from previous Ikubi-kissaki, or Ko-gissaki.  This is a typical late Kamakura period Kissaki style.  This is O-suriage (largely shortened). 

Under Kamakura Bakufu, many swordsmiths moved to KamakuraThey were Toroku Sakon Kunituna (藤六左近国綱) of Yamashiro Awataguchi group (山城粟田口),  Fukuoka Ichimonji Sukezane (福岡一文字助真), and Kunimune (国宗) from the Bizen area.  They were the origin of Soshu Den (相州伝)Eventually, Tosaburo Yukimitsu (藤三郎行光) and his famous son,  Masamune (正宗), appearedIn the drawing above, Kinsuji and Inazuma are shown inside the Hamon.  The shinning lines inside the Hamon are Inazuma and Kinsuji.  Inazuma and Kinsuji are a collection of Nie.  Masamune is famous for Inazuma and Kinsuji.  Masamune lived in Kamakura; his Hamon looks like ocean waves when it is viewed sideways.

50 part 2 of 15 吉岡.photo 50 part 2 of 15 吉岡

The above picture is a sword by a swordsmith of Yoshioka Ichimonji group (吉岡一文字).  The Kissaki is also like the one of Masamune’s.  It is longer than the previous Ikubi-kissaki or Ko-gissaki.  This is Chu-gissaki.  The Kissaki like this is one of the crucial points to determine what period the sword was made.  The Hamon has Choji, Gunome, Togariba (pointed-tip), and very tight Nie.

50 part 2 of 15 運生 photo 50 part 2 of 15 運生 

The above photo is a sword by Ukai Unsho (鵜飼雲生) of Bizen Den.  This sword is also from the late Kamakura period.  But it has Ko-gissaki.  This sword does not have the late Kamakura period Chu-gissaki style.  Narrow Hoso-suguha is somewhat like an earlier time than the late Kamakura period.  This sword indicates that the sword does not always have the style of that period.  To Kantei*, first, look at the style and shape then give yourself some idea of the period of the time it was made.  But in this case, Kissaki does not indicate the late Kamakura periodThe next thing is to look at the different characteristics of the sword one by one like Hamon, Nie or Nioi, Jihada, etc.,  and determine what period, which Den, which province and then come up with the name. This process is called Kantei.

*Kantei —  to determine the swordsmith’s name by analyzing the  sword characteristic without seeing the Mei (inscribed swordsmith name). Mei may be gone if it was shortened.

All the photos above are from Sano Museum Catalogue.  Permission to use is granted.