The circle above indicates the time we discuss in this section
This chapter is the continued part of chapter 6 Heian Period Sword. Please read chapter 6 before reading this section. More technical terms will be used which were explained between chapters 1 to 33. For those who are not familiar with sword terminology, please read chapter 1 to 33 first, then read part 2.
There are several active schools (Den: 伝) of swordsmith during the Heian period. The word Den will be used instead of school in the chapters follow. They are Yamashiro Den (山城伝), Yamato Den (大和伝), Bizen Den ( 備前伝 ). Also, the following areas are other groups outside of Dens above: Hoki-no-Kuni (伯耆), and Ou-U Kaji (奥羽鍛冶 ).
Yamashiro Den (山城伝 )
Among Yamashiro Den swords in the Heian period, the name of the sword, Mikazuki Munechika (三日月宗近) by Sanjo Munechika (三条宗近) is the most famous. Mikazuki means crescent. Because the crescent shape uchinoke (collection of nie) pattern appears in the Hamon area, it is named Mikazuki Munechika. It has a graceful shape, narrow-body, Koshi-zori, Funbari, and small kissaki. It shows wood grain surface, suguha with nie mixed with small irregular, sometimes nijyu-ha (double hamon: 二重刃) appears. Sanjo Munechika lived at the Sanjo area in Kyoto. His sword style was followed by his sons and grandsons, Sanjo Yoshiie (三条吉家), Gojo Kanenaga (五条兼永), Gojo Kuninaga (五条国永 ). Gojo is the area in Kyoto.
三日月宗近 東京国立博物館蔵 “刀剣のみかた” 広井雄一 Mikaduki Munechika Tokyo National Museum “Token no mikata” by Yuichi Hiroi
Houki -no-Kuni (伯耆の国)
Houki-no-Kuni is today’s Tottori prefecture. It is known for the place to produce good iron. The sword name, Doujigiri Yasutsuna (童子切安綱) by Houki-no-Yasutsuna (伯耆の安綱) is the most famous one.
The characteristics of Yasutsuna’s sword———-It has a graceful shape with small kissaki, narrow hamon (often suguha with ko-choji), coarse nie on hamon area, large wood grain mixed with masame on ji-hada. Hamon area often shows Inazuma and kinsuji. Boshi area is yakizume, kaen with small turn back.
伯耆の安綱 (Hoki no Yasutsuna) 佐野美術館図録 (Sano Musem Catalogue)
Bizen Den (備前伝 )
Bizen is Okayama prefecture today. It is known for the place to produce good iron. Since the Heian period until now, Bizen has been famous for the sword-making tradition. The sword-making group in this area during the Heian period is called the Ko-bizen group. The most famous swordsmith in Ko-bizen group is Bizen Tomonari (備前友成) and Bizen Masatsune (備前正恒) and Bizen Kanehira (備前包平）
The characteristics of Ko-bizen group———-a graceful narrow body, small kissaki, narrow tempered line with Ko-choji (small irregular) with Inazuma and Kin-suji. Ji-hada is a small wood grain pattern.
Bizen Kanehira (備前包平) Sano Museum Catalogue (佐野美術館図録)
I saw Ko-Bizen Sanetsune (真恒 ) at Mori Sensei’s house. That was one of the Kantei-to of that day. I received Douzen*ᴵ. The book written by Honami Koson was used as our textbook. Each time I saw a sword at Mori Sensei’s house, I put down the date on the swordsmith’s name in this book where the author explains on him. It was Nov. 22, 1970. The deciding point was a narrow body line, small kissaki (that is Ko-bizen Komaru), kamasu*² (no Fukura), and suguha. Kamasu is the condition where the fukura is much less than usual. When I think back, it is amazing we could see a famous sword like this one for our study materials. Today, I forget things easily, but I can remember each sword I saw in those days.
Kantei-kai is the study meeting. Usually, several swords were displayed hiding the nakago part. The attendees guess the name of the sword maker and hand in the answer sheet to the judge. Below is the grade.
Atari—–If the answer is the right on the exact name, you get atari, that is the best answer.
Douzen*ᴵ—-The second one is dozen. The subject sword was made by the family and (or) clan of the right Den. It means almost the right answer. Dozen is considered very good. It indicates the student has a good knowledge of the particular group.
Kaido Yoshi—– This means the same line, but not within the family.
Jidai Yoshi—-Each Kanntei-kai has different grading systems. Some have Jidai Yoshi, which means the time or period is correct.
After all the answer is handed in and the answer sheet is returned to the attendee, the judge reveals the right answer and explains about each sword.
*2 Kamasu is the name of a fish. It has narrow and pointed head.